Gender and Learners' Beliefs in Corrective Feedback in Learning Chinese as a Foreign Language: A Network Questionnaire Survey Report

  • Liqin Wu Anhui University of Finance and Economics, Bengbu, Anhui, China
Keywords: gender, beliefs, CF, LCFL, network questionnaire survey


This network questionnaire survey aims to confirm whether gender differences exist in learners’ beliefs in corrective feedback (CF) in learning Chinese as a foreign language (LCFL). Ninety-seven (53 male and 44 female) university learners of Chinese from 33 countries participated in the survey. The statistical results indicated that there were little significant differences in male and female learners’ beliefs in CF in LCFL except in two psychological effects in which male learners seemed more emotional or grateful to teachers’ correction; that culture did not influence male and female learners’ beliefs in CF; that self-correction and teachers’ correction are more welcomed than peers’; that immediate correction in specific contexts was preferred; that teachers were supposed to tell the learners where the mistake was before correcting it; that it was not confirmed whether direct or indirect correction was better; that learners’ preference of frequency of CF was between sometimes or often; and that negative effects of CF were not found. These findings may contribute to the Chinese teachers’ understanding of learners as individuals and to correction methods teachers adopt while confronting learners’ errors in teaching Chinese as a foreign language (TCFL) classes.


Aliakbari, M., & Tazik, K. (2011). On the relationship between gender and perceptual language learning styles: the case of Iranian academic EFL learners. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 31(6), 654-674,
Alshahrani, A., & Storch, N. (2013). Investigating teachers’ written corrective feedback practices in a Saudi EFL context: How do they align with their Beliefs, institutional guidelines, and students’ preferences? Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 37(2), 101-122.
Bećirović, S. (2017). The Relationship between gender, motivation and achievement in learning English as a foreign language. European Journal of Contemporary Education, 6(2), 210-220.
Bell, S., & McCallum, R. (2012). Do foreign language learning, cognitive, and affective variables differ as a function of exceptionality status and gender? International Education, 42(1), 86-106. Retrieved from
Ding,Y., & Zhao. T. (2019). Chinese university EFL teachers’ and students’ beliefs about EFL writing: differences, influences, and pedagogical implications. Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics, 42(2), 163-181.
Ehrlich, S. (1997). Gender as Social Practice: Implications for Second Language Acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19(4), 421-446.
Ellis, R. (2009). Corrective feedback and teacher development, L2 Journal, 1, 3-18.
Ellis, R., Loewen, S., & Erlam, R. (2009). Implicit and explicit knowledge in second language learning, testing and teaching. Clevedon, North Somerset: United Kingdom: Multilingual Matters.
Feery, K. (2008). Current perspectives on the role of gender in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) Research. ITB Journal, 9(1), 32-51.
Gardner, R. C., & Lambert, W. E. (1972). Attitudes and Motivation in Second Language Learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers.
Halpern, D. F. (2012). Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. New York, NY: Psychology Press; Hove, East Sussex: Psychology Press.
Hendrickson, J. M. (1978). Error correction in foreign language teaching: Recent theory, research, and practice. Modern Language Journal, 62(8), 387-398.
Horwitz, E. K. (1985). Using student beliefs about language learning and teaching in the foreign language methods course. Foreign Language Annals, 18, 333-340.
Horwitz, E. K. (1988). The beliefs about language learning of beginning university foreign language students. Modern Language Journal, 72(3), 283-294.
Hyde , J. S., Lindberg, S. M., Linn, M. C., Ellis, A., & Williams, C. ( 2008 ). Gender similarities characterize math performance. Science, 321, 494-495. science.1160364
Kao, P. C., Chen, K. T. C., & Craigie, P. (2017). Gender differences in strategies for coping with foreign language learning anxiety. Social Behavior and Personality, 45(2), 205-210.
Karim, K., & Nassaji, H. (2020). The revision and transfer effects of direct and indirect comprehensive corrective feedback on ESL students’ writing. Language Teaching Research, 24(4), 519-539.
Karlak, M., & Medve, V. B. (2016). Gender differences in the use of learning strategies, motivation and communicative competence in German and English as foreign languages. STRANI JEZICI, 45, 163-183. Retrieved from:
Kim, Y. J., Choi, B., Kang, S., Kim, B., & Yun, H. (2020). Comparing the effects of direct and indirect synchronous written corrective feedback: Learning outcomes and students’ perceptions. Foreign Language Annals, 53(1), 176-199.
Kobayashi , Y. (2002).The role of gender in foreign language learning attitudes: Japanese female students’ attitudes towards English learning. Gender and Education, 14(2), 181-197.
Kraemer, S. (2000). The fragile male. BMJ, 321(7276): 1609-1612.
Kriegbaum, K., Becker, B., & Spinath, B. (2018). The relative importance of intelligence and motivation as predictors of school achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 25, 120-148.
Lightbown, P. M., & Spada, N. (1999). How languages are learned. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.
Lyster, R., & Ranta, L. (1997). Corrective feedback and learner uptake. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 37-66.
Lyster, R., Saito, K., & Sato, M. (2013). Oral corrective feedback in second language classrooms. Language Teaching, 46(1), 1-40.
Martínez-Marín, M.D., & Martínez, C. (2019). Negative and positive attributes of gender stereotypes and gender self-attributions: A Study with Spanish adolescents. Child Indicators Research, 12, 1043-1063.
Martin, S., & Valdivia, I. M. A. (2017). Students’ feedback beliefs and anxiety in online foreign language oral tasks. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 14(1), 1-15.
Money, J. (1987). Propaedutics of ducious G-I/R: Theoretical foundations for understanding dimorphic gender-identity/role. In J. M. Reinisch, L. A. Rosenblum, & S. A. Sanders (Eds.), Masculinity/femininity: Basic perspectives. New York: Oxford, 13.
Muchnick, A. G., & Wolfe, D. E. (1982). Attitudes and motivations of American students of Spanish. Canadian Modern Language Review, 38(2), 262-281. Retrieved from:
Platsidou, M., & Sipitanou, A. A. (2015). Exploring relationships with grade level, gender and language proficiency in the foreign language learning strategy use of children and early adolescents. International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning, 4(1), 83-96.
Rehman, J. , & Herlitz, A. ( 2006 ). Women remember more faces than men do. Acta Psychologica, 124, 344-355.
Sasson, N. J., Pinkham, A. E., Richard, J., Hughett, P., Gur, R. E., & Gur, R. C. (2010). Controllingfor response biases clarifies sex and age differences in facial affect recognition. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 34, 207 -221.
Tercanlioglu, L. (2004). Exploring gender effect on adult foreign language learning strategies. Issues in Educational Research, 14, 1-11. Retrieved from
van der Slik, F. W. P., van Hout, R. W. N. M., & Schepens, J. J. (2015). The gender gap in second language acquisition: Gender differences in the acquisition of Dutch among immigrants from 88 countries with 49 mother tongues. PLOS ONE, 10(11), 1-22. pone.0142056
Witkin, H. A., Dyk, R. B., Faterson, H. F., Goodenough, D. R., & Karp, S. A. (1962). Psychological Differentiation. New York: Wiley and Sons.
Wu, J. Y., & Cheng, T. Y. (2019). Who is better adapted in learning online within the personal learning environment? Relating gender differences in cognitive attention networks to digital distraction. Computers & Education, 128, 312-329.
Zhu, Y., & Wang, B. L. (2019). Investigating English language learners’ beliefs about oral corrective feedback at Chinese Universities: A large-scale survey, Language Awareness, 28(2), 139-161.
Zoghi, M., Kazemi, S. A., & Kalani, A. (2013). The effect of gender on language learning. Journal of Novel Applied Sciences, 2(S4), 1124-1128. Retrieved from:
Zu, X. M., & Ma, Jiali (2015). Chinese teachers and students beliefs and attitudes regarding corrective feedback. Chinese Language Learning, 4, 66-75. Retrieved from
One-Way ANOVA: Male and Female Learners Beliefs in CF in LCFL (Section 3)