International Educational Research <p>International Educational Research (IER)&nbsp;is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal, which is semiannual published by <span lang="EN-US">IDEAS SPREAD INC</span>&nbsp;in both print and online versions. The online version is free to access and download. The journal publishes original research papers, case reports, and review articles. The journal encourages submission in but not limited to subjects of Education method, education policy and education development; Educational technology and educational psychology; Special education and cross-cultural education; Educational leadership, educational administration and educational evaluation; Training, teaching and learning, Language education.</p> en-US <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.<br> This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (</p> (Adan Williams) (Technical Support) Tue, 18 Dec 2018 19:08:19 +0800 OJS 60 A Retrospective View of Using Translation in Chinese Teaching <p style="text-align: justify;">For non-native Chinese speaking adult immigrants, learning Chinese as a second language with the help of translation is cognitively natural. Such learners, already versed in their mother tongue, can well justify themselves to have “the ability to move appropriately between languages” when translation can be seen as a natural language skill to use, often being used with these learners’ scant awareness. Moreover, what goes on in learners’ mind is an on-going process that not only draws on analytical and associative resources but also a more elaborated analysis of the new input in an effort to turn the input into intake. Meanwhile, translation is a communicative tool that both the teacher and students find it practical to use in a class. Understanding how to maximize this tool to enhance learners’ learning becomes indispensable. The present investigation focuses on classroom observation of two classes where non-native speakers of different proficiency take Chinese lessons for three months. Both teacher-learner and learner-learner interaction indicates translation is a handy medium that learners use to assist learning a new language. Learners with the same language background readily use their mother tongue to help one another grasp the linguistic concepts under study. Other than that, English serves as a common denominator for the interaction between a teacher and his/ her learners.</p> Feng-Mei Chao, Qiao Yu Cai ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 18 Dec 2018 19:15:43 +0800 The Implementation of SETS (Science, Environment, Technology, and Society) Approach Through Flood Natural Disaster Mitigation <p>Disaster can happen anytime and anywhere, therefore the solutions offered for students' understanding of disaster, one of them is the SETS approach through disaster mitigation. This research aims to determine the learning process and to know the students’ activities, and their responses towards SETS approach through disaster mitigation. This research is a qualitative type with a sample of 37 students. Data collection techniques are the results of observations, questionnaires, interviews, and documentation. The results showed that 90% of students were more active, have the spirit to learn, and the response towards learning is very good. The implementation of SETS approach through mitigation is appropriate to do, because students experience the direct occurrence of flood disaster. With the introduction to disaster mitigation, students can realize the importance of preserving the natural environment and minimize the impact of disasters that can harm the community.</p> Sugeng Muslimin, Iis Yeni Sugiarti, Yopi Nisa Febianti, Dian Permana Putri ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Dec 2018 22:07:50 +0800 Determining the Opinions of Pupils on Space Professions <p>The purpose of this study was to plan educational interventions for informing the school population of Western Attica (Greece), an area with acute social and environmental problems (unemployment and natural disasters), about Space professions and their career perspectives. Accordingly, a questionnaire for determining the opinions of senior high-school pupils on the related issues had been designed and used for conducting a limited preliminary survey, to evaluate the entire process. This survey indicated that pupils are not aware of the related career prospects. The recording of the opinions about Space professions revealed that they are strongly associated with the profession of astronaut, although there are many more that can contribute to social welfare and environmental protection. Therefore, an educational intervention should be planned around three main points; these of presenting: Space professions, available career options and motives for pursuing them.</p> Evangelos C. Papakitsos, Anastasios Mavrakis, Konstantinos Karakiozis, Xenophon Vamvakeros ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 26 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0800 A Study of Teaching Film Appreciation and its Effects by a Junior High School Teacher <p>In today’s world, where we are constantly surrounded by visual images of all kinds, students need the ability to appreciate and interpret images if they are to be able to function properly in contemporary society. After failing to find a suitable model in the literature, the researcher had previously developed, through teaching practice, a model and strategies for teaching film appreciation at university level; this model and the supporting strategies were brought to a junior high school located in Taipei City, Taiwan, where the researcher worked together with the school’s art teachers to jointly implement action research and develop a model and strategies suitable for the teaching of film appreciation to junior high school students, and to evaluate the results achieved through the application of this teaching model. The present study therefore had two objectives: (1) To develop a teaching model and teaching strategies appropriate for the teaching of film appreciation at the junior high school level, and to explore the factors affecting film appreciation teaching at this level; (2) To analyze the learning outcomes of students who had been taught film appreciation using this model.</p> <p>The study makes use of in-class observations, interviews, documentary analysis (including analysis of reflective journals, learning sheets, and feedback form), etc., to collect data and analyze the teachings of the art teachers involved in the case study. The study found that the film appreciation teaching model helped the students transition from simply enjoying the films to being able to appreciate them by simplifying the process into three “layers” at the junior high school level: getting students to describe the content of the film on the basis of their immediate response to it, analysis of form, and evaluation and reflection by the viewer. A wide range of teaching strategies were employed, including asking students questions, getting students to provide examples, encouraging students to make comparisons, use of still images, discussion, etc.; this utilization of diversified teaching strategies helped to enrich the teaching and make the classes more accessible and enjoyable for students. Unfortunately, the overall quality of the teaching was negatively affected by disruption caused by other school activities, and by the teacher’s lack of specialist expertise in this area. Nevertheless, the students who had been taught using this film appreciation education model were able to: describe film plots (in terms of how the film begins, develops and ends);&nbsp; explain the meaning of a film’s main theme-although it will require designing further teaching strategies for them to provide in-depth explanation of the film’s meaning, and their ability to make formal analysis depended on the teachers’ specialist knowledge; perform a rough analysis of the major formal aspects of a film; and put forward their own views on a film. Reflecting on the films that they had seen encouraged the students to change their own ways of thinking and behavior; the students enjoyed learning from the films, and felt that this approach to learning was a valuable one.</p> Fu-Ju Yang ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 26 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0800