International Educational Research <p>International Educational Research (IER)&nbsp;is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal, which is published by <span lang="EN-US">IDEAS SPREAD INC</span>&nbsp;in both print and online versions. The online version is free to access and download. The journal publishes original research papers, case reports, and review articles. The journal encourages submission in but not limited to subjects of Education method, education policy and education development; Educational technology and educational psychology; Special education and cross-cultural education; Educational leadership, educational administration and educational evaluation; Training, teaching and learning, Language education.</p> en-US <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.<br> This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (</p> (Adan Williams) (Technical Support) Sat, 27 Jan 2024 14:59:15 +0800 OJS 60 The Effect of Level-Marked Tasks on Students’ Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Persistence—Investigating a Tiered Activity <p>In school mathematics, tiering tasks according to students’ readiness levels is a common approach to adapting content to address students’ varying abilities. To distinguish between different tiers, the tasks are commonly marked by their level of difficulty, as in so called level-marked tasks – a strategy used in differentiated instruction to help students gain mastery and improve performance. However, less is known about whether and to what extent the marking of the tasks works as intended. Regarded as a significant predictor of students’ performance in mathematics, the level marking of mathematics tasks and their effects on students’ self-efficacy and persistence were investigated. The online survey part of an experimental design was used to collect data from 436 lower secondary students in Norway. Independent sample t-tests and Mann–Whitney U tests revealed that, when students across groups were given the same mathematics tasks with and without level markings, tasks marked as difficult reduced both students’ mathematics self-efficacy and their persistence, even for students with high baseline self-efficacy. Although more research is needed to fully understand how the level markings of mathematics tasks affect students’ self-efficacy and persistence, the reported results have implications for both mathematics teachers and textbook authors.</p> Maria Herset, Annette H. Bjerke, Mohamed El Ghami ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0800 Rural Cultural Wealth in African Education <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">Globally, rural communities are facing varied issues that impact the holistic well-being of residents ranging from the need to increase access to health and educational resources to addressing food and housing insecurities. In this manuscript, we expound upon the rural cultural wealth conceptual framework to demonstrate the application of this conceptual framework globally. Using the Nigerian context, we illustrate how the resourcefulness, ingenuity, familism, and unity found within rural communities can be harnessed to improve rural education.</span></p> Crystal R. Chambers, Victor Chimaihe Ihuka, Loni Crumb, Dorcas E. Barde ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 27 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0800