International Educational Research 2021-07-13T07:45:20+08:00 Adan Williams Open Journal Systems <p>International Educational Research (IER)&nbsp;is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal, which is published by <span lang="EN-US">IDEAS SPREAD INC</span>&nbsp;in both print and online versions. The online version is free to access and download. The journal publishes original research papers, case reports, and review articles. The journal encourages submission in but not limited to subjects of Education method, education policy and education development; Educational technology and educational psychology; Special education and cross-cultural education; Educational leadership, educational administration and educational evaluation; Training, teaching and learning, Language education.</p> Exploring Parental Involvement in Education in Selected Inclusive Secondary Schools in Maseru District, Lesotho 2021-07-13T07:45:20+08:00 Malehlanye Constantinus Ralejoe <p>This study investigated parental understanding of the concept “Parental Involvement in Education” of their children (PIE) in three inclusive secondary schools in the Maseru District of Lesotho. It also investigated the extent to which parents make contributions to the education of their children. The study was quantitative, exploratory in nature and used a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire to collect data. 700 parents in these schools were randomly selected to fill the questionnaires and the data were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The results revealed that most parents understand PIE and its implications, but do not do much to assist teachers in schools. Mothers appeared to support the teaching of their children more than fathers. Prominent barriers in their efforts to help teachers included work-related commitments and a lower level of education. The study proposed formation of support groups involving all stakeholders for the purpose of raising awareness about PIE, educating parents about their roles in the education of their children, and improving communication among all stakeholders.</p> 2021-04-27T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Designing Online Learning Evaluation in Times of Covid-19 Pandemic 2021-07-13T07:45:18+08:00 Bambang Suswanto Adhi Iman Sulaiman Toto Sugito Sri Weningsih Ahmad Sabiq Bambang Kuncoro <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">The research objective is to design of learning evaluation that becomes strategy in the Covid Pandemic 19. The study used qualitative research methods with case studies that construct unique and important special realities through data collection interviews and discussions by using case study analysis. The data was collected through online media such as google meetings as well as direct observation from informants, who were determined by purposive sampling, namely the management and student representatives of study groups at the Open University of Purwokerto City and private education institution of Pakis school in Cilongok District in Banyumas regency, Central Java of Indonesia. The research result that the process of service and implementation of education as well as its evaluation during the Covid-19 pandemic must still take place using adaptation and innovation strategies in the form of online learning media through the application media for the Microsoft Teams and Learning Management System (LMS) program. Implementing innovative learning through online media has been successfully implemented practically and effectively, but there is still a need for special socialization and training on an ongoing basis. Evaluation of services and implementation of education is very important to do to provide program improvement and results and evaluation could be effectively carried out through google form and Learning Management System (LMS).</span></p> 2021-05-02T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Analysis of Students’ Mathematical Competencies: The Relationship between Units 2021-06-18T22:39:29+08:00 Jitlada Jaikla Maitree Inprasitha Narumon Changsri <p>This study aimed to investigate students’ mathematical competence in learning relationships between units according to the students’ performance in a SUKEN test of Level 6. A total of 139 students were selected as our target group and involved as examinees. Research instruments include students’ answer sheets, test item analyses, and textbook analysis. SUKEN test is a mathematical proficiency test used to identify related issues to improve teaching practices. The results from the first phase showed that there were 24 examinees or 17.27 percent of them had been successfully passed the passing criterion as 70 percent of the total marks 100. However, there was a lowest percentage (33.21%) of examinees showed that they were able to answer correctly in the questions related to the content domain of Quantities and Measurement compared to other content domains. On top of that, only 38.49 percent and 31.09 percent of the examinees possessed their competencies in content knowledge and the method of application respectively while they answered the Quantities and Measurement questions. Besides, the results of in-depth analyses from students’ answer sheets revealed that there were seven different groups of answers by analyzing examinees' responses in terms of their reasoning skills to support their responses. Examinees were found to have problems finding the relationship between cm<sup>3</sup> and m<sup>3</sup>, whenever they have to use a relationship in three dimensions. Therefore, teachers are suggested to use the geometry model to assist students in understanding the relationships between the units.</p> 2021-06-18T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Core Values of Graduate Students in the Context of Lesson Study Process 2021-06-19T21:53:14+08:00 Alisa Moonsri Maitree Inprasitha Narumon Changsri <p>The purpose of this research was planned to explore graduate students’ core values in the context of the Lesson Study process. The selected research institute is a Faculty of Education of a public university in Khon Kaen province, Thailand. A total of 59 samples were purposively selected to participate in a survey. The target group was selected based on the condition that they are studying Mathematics Education Graduate Program for not less than one year and have practiced several cycles of the Lesson Study process during their studies. The target group consisted of 40 and 19 samples who are currently doing their master’s and doctoral studies, respectively. This research utilized the Thailand Lesson Study Model (Inprasitha, 2010) consisting of three steps, namely (i) collaboratively design a research lesson (Plan); (ii) collaboratively observe the research lesson (Do), and (iii) collaboratively discuss and reflect on the research lesson (See) in terms of the four core values, namely building collaboration, open-minded attitudes, public concern, and emphasis on product-process approach (Inprasitha, 2015). Data were collected using a questionnaire and reflection online blog. The survey results revealed that there are different levels of practicing the four core values at each step of the Lesson Study process in different training activities. In conclusion, the results of this research have successfully contributed to our recognition of the importance of core values while graduate students in the context of the Lesson Study process.</p> 2021-06-19T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Using Classroom Video in Designing Open-ended Problem Situations 2021-06-19T22:22:37+08:00 Saastra Laah-On Maitree Inprasitha Kiat Sangaroon Narumon Changsri <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">Teacher and teacher trainees have been introduced to practice Thailand Lesson Study incorporated Open Approach Model as the problem-solving-based teaching approach for the past two decades. The problem-solving-based teaching approach has to begin with posing open-ended problem situation in order to encourage students to solve the problem independently using their own method. Therefore, open-ended problem situation design is considered a key factor for teachers or teacher trainees to provide sufficient opportunities to students’ learning experiences in solving the problems (Inprasitha, 2017). As a result, this research was aimed to use video recordings of classroom teaching and experts’ reflection practice to analyze teacher trainees’ abilities in designing open-ended problem situations. A total of 10 teacher trainees were selected from the Department of Mathematics (English Program), Faculty of Education, Valaya Alongkorn Rajabhat University under the Royal Patronage using a purposive sampling technique. A multi-cases study survey research design was employed using a qualitative approach. There were four research instruments used, namely lesson plan, video and audio recording, field notes, and interview protocol. Data were collected using various sources such as research lesson plans, audio, and video recording as well as interviewing. The results revealed that teacher trainees utilized classroom teaching videos to support them in clarifying indecisive problem situations, revising the sequence of teaching, and modifying appropriate words used in giving the direction of the problem situations. On the other hand, the experts’ reflection video has successfully assisted them to have a better understanding of mathematical contents in problem-solving teaching approach and teacher trainees’ intention of each action in the learning activities. </span></p> 2021-06-19T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mathematics Educators’ Perspective on Pre-service Mathematics Teachers’ Professional Competencies 2021-06-21T09:59:35+08:00 Sirirat Chaona Maitree Inprasitha Narumon Changsri Kiat Sangaroon <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">This research was designed to study pre-service mathematics teachers' professional competencies to assist student learning by using Lesson Study and Open Approach innovations from mathematics educators' perspectives. A total of 35 mathematics educators have more than three years of experience not only in terms of utilizing the Lesson Study and Open Approach innovations but also in providing training to the pre-service mathematics teachers were selected. The researchers employed three data collection methods, namely document analysis, a survey using a questionnaire, and interviews. The obtained data from three sources was designed with the principle of triangulation. The findings of this research were presented under the three steps of the Thailand Lesson Study Model. In the first step, “Collaboratively Design Research Lesson Plan”, pre-service teachers can create problem situations that associated with the students' real world, can analyze the context of the problem situations, can analyze keywords that initiate students' ideas, can anticipate students' ideas, and can prepare teaching materials to support students' ideas. This is followed by the second step as “Collaboratively Observe Research Lesson”. The findings revealed that pre-service teachers can observe students’ ideas when their students were solving mathematical problems, can notice students’ difficulties in their learning, can give feedback using words that match with students’ proficiency level, give students opportunities to show how to think and present their ideas, listen to and accept students’ opinions, and taking notes on students’ ideas or pieces of learning evidence. The findings of the final step namely “Collaboratively Reflect on Teaching Practice” showed that pre-service teachers could reflect the learning outcomes by correlating students’ ideas with the instructions.</span></p> 2021-06-20T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Developing Factors and Indicators of Growth Mindset for School Administrators in Thailand 2021-06-22T21:28:32+08:00 Nitas Masalee Wallapha Ariratana Saowanee Sirisooksilp <p>The sustainability of educational administration is depending on school administrators’ growth mindset. A growth mindset is detected to have a direct relationship with school achievement and success. Despite being an integral part of school leadership, the growth mindset of school administrators has been ignored by past researchers. Hence, this research is designed to investigate the growth mindset’s significant factors and indicators of high school administrators in Thailand. The researchers employed a quantitative approach survey design. A total of 460 school administrators and teachers participated in a survey using a multi-stage sampling technique. The researchers intended to test whether the identified factors and indicators are fitting with empirical data as the ultimate research outcome. The results revealed that there are a total of 17 indicators derived from the six factors in a growth mindset model. The measurement model of growth mindset is corroborated to the empirical data, with χ<sup>2</sup>=64.875, df=50, χ<sup>2</sup><strong>/</strong>df=1.2975, CFI=0.99, TLI=0.99, RMSEA=0.02, and SRMR=0.01. In conclusion, the developed growth mindset model for high school administrators has a goodness-of-fit with the attained data. Finally, the results of this research have successfully proposed a measurement model that would be guidelines for school administrators to grow their positive mindset as our major contribution to the educational administration field.</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Needs Assessment of Internal Supervision in Secondary Schools under the Office of Basic Education Commission 2021-06-22T21:34:22+08:00 Kampon Khantawong Saowanee Sirisooksilp Dawruwan Thawinkarn <p>The purpose of this research was to study the need assessment of internal supervision in secondary schools under the jurisdiction of the Office of Basic Education Commission, Thailand. A total of 944 teachers participated in the survey using multistage random sampling. The five scopes of internal supervision were investigated, namely, academic in curriculum development, development of learning process, evaluation and comparison of grades transfer, development of innovative media and digital technology, and educational supervision using a 43-items questionnaire. The need assessment results showed that the development of innovative media and digital technology (PNI<sub>modified</sub>=0.373) is the most essential scope of internal supervision according to respondents’ perceptions. This is followed by the development of the learning process (PNI<sub>modified</sub>=0.267), educational supervision (PNI<sub>modified</sub>=0.262), and evaluation and comparison of grades transfer (PNI<sub>modified</sub>=0.257). The least capacity scope is academic in curriculum development (PNI<sub>modified</sub>=0.246). The overall results imply that supervisors or school principals should attempt to ensure that internal supervisions are regularly operated to improve the teaching and learning process by paying more attention to the scope of development of innovative media and digital technology without ignoring the other four scopes.&nbsp;</p> 2021-06-22T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Policy Recommendation for Educational Management to Promote Occupations in the Community Learning Centers for Non-Formal and Informal Education 2021-06-24T00:37:06+08:00 Hataikan Soyngam Wallapha Ariratana Dawruwan Thawinkarn <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">This study was planned to investigate the current and desirable conditions of educational management to promote occupations in the community learning centers for non-formal and informal education using needs assessments. A sum of 423 respondents encompassed 184 school administrators and 239 teachers participated in the survey using a stratified random sampling method. A questionnaire consisted of 47 items was used as the research instrument. Data were analyzed using mean scores, standard deviation, and priority needs index modified. The study results showed that the overall current state was at a high level (mean score=3.53) while the desirable condition was at the highest level (mean score=4.41), respectively, for educational management to promote occupations in the community learning centers for non-formal and informal education. Finally, the needs assessment results indicated that the highest priority was the change management factor (PNI<sub>modified</sub>=0.403), followed by curriculum development and learning activities in promoting occupations factor (PNI<sub>modified</sub>=0.254), promotion of educational partners’ networking factor (PNI<sub>modified</sub>=0.247), and being a lifelong learner factor (PNI<sub>modified</sub>=0.206). The lowest priority index of needs was digital literacy for occupations (PNI<sub>modified</sub>=0.161). The results contribute significantly to knowledge with regard to needs assessments which will be the reference for educational managers and teachers to understand how to promote occupational education.</span></p> 2021-06-23T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Personal Knowledge Management to Enhance the Effectiveness of Teacher Learning Management in Lao PDR 2021-06-24T00:33:40+08:00 Vathanavanh Sayasane Kanokorn Somprach Jatuphum Ketchatturat <p>This study was intended to search the vital factors and indicators of personal knowledge management and the effectiveness of teacher learning management for primary school teachers in Lao PDR. A survey research design was employed to 600 teachers with the purpose of testing the goodness-of-fit of the identified vital factors and indicators with the empirical data. The results revealed that an entire of 30 indicators were recognized from 10 vital factors. The structural relationship model of personal knowledge management to enhance the effectiveness of teacher learning management indicators was found to be in parallel to the empirical data, with χ<sup>2 </sup>=382.319, df=342, χ <strong><sup>2</sup>/</strong>df=1.117, CFI=0.997, TLI=0.996, RMSEA=0.030, and SRMR=0.030. The results contribute significantly to knowledge with orientation to recommending a measurement model which can be referred by primary school teachers in Lao PDR in particular on how to utilize personal knowledge management skills to enhance their learning management capabilities.</p> 2021-06-23T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Reviewer Acknowledgements for International Educational Research, Vol. 4, No. 1 2021-07-03T16:44:54+08:00 Adan Williams <p><em>International Educational Research</em> wishes to acknowledge the following individuals for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Their help and contributions in maintaining the quality of the journal is greatly appreciated.</p> <p><em>International Educational Research </em>is recruiting reviewers for the journal. If you are interested in becoming a reviewer, we welcome you to join us. Please find the application form and details at and e-mail the completed application form to</p> <p><strong>Reviewers for Volume 4, Number 1</strong></p> <p>Achi Ndifon Bekomson, University of Calabar, Nigeria</p> <p>Epiphania B. Magwilang, Mountain Province State Polytechnic College, Philippines</p> <p>Hanifah Mahat, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI), Malaysia</p> <p>Herwin, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia</p> <p>John Mark R. Asio, Gordon College, Philippines</p> <p>Maaouia Haj Mabrouk, Ministry of Education, Tunisia</p> <p>Marisa Christina Tapilouw, Satya Wacana Christian University, Indonesia</p> <p>Markus Antretter, Pädagogische Hochschule Tirol, Austria</p> <p>Moh. Zamili, Universitas Ibrahimy, Indonesia</p> <p>Norasmah Othman, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia</p> <p>Okan Kuzu, Ahi Evran University, Turkey</p> <p>Ronel M. Sapungan, Batangas State University, Philippines</p> <p>Ruli As'ari, Siliwangi University, Indonesia</p> <p>Umi Mahmudah, State Islamic Institute of Pekalongan, Indonesia</p> <p>V. S. Sumi, Maulana Azad National Urdu University, India</p> <p>Vahid Hassani, Farhangian University of Teacher Education, Iran</p> <p>Vera Lucia Felicetti, La Salle University, Brasil</p> <p>Zhang Sijia, Gardner-Webb University, USA</p> 2021-07-03T16:44:53+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##