International Educational Research <p>International Educational Research (IER)&nbsp;is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal, which is semiannual published by <span lang="EN-US">IDEAS SPREAD INC</span>&nbsp;in both print and online versions. The online version is free to access and download. The journal publishes original research papers, case reports, and review articles. The journal encourages submission in but not limited to subjects of Education method, education policy and education development; Educational technology and educational psychology; Special education and cross-cultural education; Educational leadership, educational administration and educational evaluation; Training, teaching and learning, Language education.</p> IDEAS SPREAD en-US International Educational Research 2576-3059 <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.<br> This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (</p> Integrating Gender Issues into the Teaching of Art Appreciation at University Level <p>The aim of the present study is to integrate gender equality education into the university art appreciation curriculum. Through a process of pedagogical research, the study explores how the incorporation of gender issues into the curriculum can help to enhance both students’ gender awareness and their art appreciation capabilities. During the process of implementing the research, use was made of analysis of students’ learning sheets and feedback forms, along with class observation, interviews and reflective journal writing, to examine the effects of integrating gender issues into university-level art appreciation teaching and the impact on students.</p> <p>The research results - both in terms of the quantitative questionnaires and qualitative data and reports - showed that there had been an improvement in both students' awareness of gender issues and their art appreciation capabilities. With regard to awareness of gender issues, students were able to: understand how traditional gender roles affect individuals' learning and development; appreciate that housework responsibilities should be shared; realize that, when faced with gender discrimination in the workplace, one can choose to use one's actions and attitude to demonstrate one's capabilities; recognize the need to work through the family, the media, the legal system, the education system etc. to change people's preconceptions; realize that compensation should be based on ability, not gender; demonstrate respect for transgender people. The students felt that it was important for the curriculum to give them the opportunity to reflect, to change, to progress, and to not be constrained by gender, in order for everyone to be able to develop their full potential. In regard to art appreciation, students were able to use description, analysis, interpretation and judgment to appreciate art works, films etc. of different types. Finally, the students were also able to utilize the methods of art appreciation to analyze short films that embody or challenge gender stereotypes, and to identify examples of gender stereotyping. The students reported having had their awareness of gender stereotypes raised, and were able to compile reports that demonstrated an enhanced awareness of gender issues.</p> Fu-Ju Yang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-28 2018-06-28 1 2 p1 p1 10.30560/ier.v1n2p1 Attitudes of Teachers Who Implement School Mediation Programmes <p>School mediation (or peer mediation) is an effective practice for resolving student-centered conflicts in the school context. According to the results of this qualitative research conducted at Secondary Education Schools of Western Attica (Greece), an area with particular social characteristics, school mediation programmes are a dynamic process and can contribute to: teamwork, communication and activation of students, changing attitudes and behaviors as well as inclusion of students with behavioral problems. These results are achieved despite the heterogeneity of the education programme followed and the heterogeneity of the population attending them. Under no circumstances, however, the implementation of a school mediation programme can be considered a panacea. On the contrary, it is proposed to be accompanied by other actions that will promote a different management spirit of the school and will improve the school climate.</p> Konstantinos Karakiozis Evangelos C. Papakitsos ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-28 2018-06-28 1 2 p16 p16 10.30560/ier.v1n2p16 Economic Empowerment of Islamic Student Throught Optional Course Learning in Boarding School for Harmonization and Preventing Negative Stigma <p>The research aims to design economic empowerment model of santri in pesantren education. The study used Participatory Rural Appration method and purposive informant selection consisting of pesantren board, teacher, santri and community. Data ware collected through documentation analysis, direct observation, interviews, and Participatory Decision Making. The location of the study was determined at pesantren of Al-Muttaqin in Cirebon, West Java and Darusy Syahadah in Boyolali, Central Java. The study was analyzed by PRA through triangulation to find the diversity of difference and similarity as well as data verification. The results show (1) Pesantren has motivation and potency to make economic institution through empowerment activity of santri like horticulture cultivation, fish and goat farm, retail and also cooperation. (2) Empowerment activities, especially through education programs, can provide students with entrepreneurial skills, independence and welfare, create harmonization with the community and anticipate the negative stigma of exclusive, closed and radical of pesantren.</p> Adhi Iman Sulaiman Bambang Suswanto Masrukin Masrukin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 1 2 p26 p26 10.30560/ier.v1n2p26 Utilizing the European Programmes “Erasmus+” for the Development of Cultural Education <p>This paper presents a small-scale survey that records the opinions of the educational community (pupils, parents and teachers) of Western Attica (Greece), an area with acute social problems and conditions, about the importance of Cultural Education, with the purpose of incorporating it into the daily activities of high-schools. This survey has been conducted within the framework of the European Programmes “Erasmus+” that support educational initiatives, regarding the mobility of students and teachers in the European Union’s member states and other associated countries, with the purpose of training in issues of common interest. The relevant activities of the overall methodology that is presented herein include the training of high-school teachers in Cultural Education issues. This training aims at achieving the strategic goal of the local educational administration, which considers Cultural Education as a prime tool for confronting social problems in school communities, worldwide.</p> Xanthippi Foulidi Evangelos C. Papakitsos Evangelos Theologis Maria Vlachopoulou Xenophon Vamvakeros ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-06 2018-10-06 1 2 p38 p38 10.30560/ier.v1n2p38 Religious Counseling as an Informal Education Approach in Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts <p>Drug abuse has become a problem and a threat to development, especially human development and the younger generation. The research aims to describe and analyze religious counseling as an informal education approach in the rehabilitation of drug addicts. This study uses a qualitative case study method,that selects informants by purposive sampling, i.e. the management of foundation, religious counselor and drug addicts. The data was collected through interviews, observation and documentation with interactional analysis. The research is located at An-Nur and Nurul Ichsan Al Islami foundation in Purbalingga Regency, Central Java. The result showed that prevention and rehabilitation of drug abuse has not only been supported by law enforcement, medical and psychological rehabilitation, but also by social, herbal and spiritual rehabilitation through religious counseling as an informal education approach. The religious counseling as an informal education approach is an effective rehabilitation through prayer, dhikr, recitation, rukyah, spiritual cleansing, natural cultivation, religious tourism and herbal therapies are aimed to prevent drug dependence that damages both physically and mentally. Then the process is continued by reinforcing faith and devotion, returning human identity that is always worshiping, doing good, preventing badness and bcoming e a blessing for all nature.</p> Agoeng Noegroho Adhi Iman Sulaiman Suryanto Suryanto ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-31 2018-10-31 1 2 p57 p57 10.30560/ier.v1n2p57 Typology and Preventive Strategies of Accident in Technical College Workshops in Kwara and Kogi States <p>This study investigated the typology and preventive strategies of accidents in technical college workshops in Kwara and Kogi States. Three research questions were posed and two hypotheses were formulated for the study. A descriptive research design was employed. The area of the study was Kwara and Kogi states. A total of 793 technical teachers made up the population of the study, while stratified random sampling was used to select the sample which was 397. Research instrument was a questionnaire named ‘Questionnaire on Typology and Preventive Strategies of Accidents in Technical College Workshop (QTPSATCW)’. Three experts validated the instrument and a reliability test using Cronbach Alpha method yielded 0.92. Mean rating was used to answer the research questions while z-test at 0.05 level of significance was used to test the hypotheses. The findings among others revealed that cuts from sharp objects, scratches, crushing of the toe or heel by objects, piercing of foot or hand by sharp objects, eye injury, hitting/cutting of the finger with tools, burns from hot objects (e.g. oven, forge), fall from height and electric shock are some of the types of accidents that could occur in technical workshops in Kwara and Kogi States. There exists no significance difference in the mean ratings of male technical teachers and female technical teachers of strategies that could be adopted to prevent accidents in technical college workshops. Based on the findings, recommendations were made among which were that technical teachers should organize the workshop activities with good housekeeping and that government should ensure availability of training equipment in adequate quantity and quality to commensurate with students’ ratio in technical college workshops.</p> Abiodun E. OGUNMOLA ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-29 2018-10-29 1 2 p49 p49 10.30560/ier.v1n2p49 Introspecting the Causes of Absenteeism of Pre-Service Teachers <p>Educators have recognized the importance of school attendance to learners’ academic growth and development. School attendance is often linked to positive school performance and considered as predictor of academic success. This notion makes it imperative to examine the potential causes of absenteeism to prevent students to be at risk of habitual truancy. Hence, this survey type of research determined the causes of absenteeism of teacher education students along attitude, school, and home-related factors. Twenty-three teacher education students who were purposively chosen as respondents based on their attendance record perceived attitude-related and home-related factors as highly contributory to their absenteeism. They had considered their current program not as their field of interest nor their first choice in selecting academic programs, and were also easily affected by their parents’ quarrel. Moreover, they considered school-related factors as contributory to absenteeism as the classrooms’ ventilation appeared not conducive to learning for the respondents. An intervention program strengthening the monitoring of students’ attendance is highly recommended in this study.</p> Richard M. Bañez Rubilyn M. Latido Nora V. Marasigan Conrado D.M. Reyes ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-14 2018-11-14 1 2 p69 p69 10.30560/ier.v1n2p69 The Dynamics of Local Public Policy Processes <p>This paper unpacks various educational policies that have been put forward with some having been able to make long lasting impact on the Zimbabwean education sector. The past three decades, has witnessed the educational system encountering innumerable challenges whose implications on service delivery are wide and deep rooted. Consequently, the education is premised upon a centralised system. Conversely, there have been calls and the need to transform policies which had been marred by colonial connotations hence the need to introduce modern policies which are in tandem with the contemporary world. The study is qualitative in nature as it used in-depth interviews and descriptive analysis. More so, document review of existing literature, reports and research papers were analysed. Educational policies among other issues are failing to effectively respond to the social and economic needs as well as political conscientization of the heterogeneous citizenry. The study recommends that the there is need to embrace the bottom-up approach as it encourages capacity building and participation. As mutual understanding and harmonisation of schools and the head office is imperative in line with the provisions of the new Zimbabwean curriculum of 2015. Moreover, a comprehensive and judicious approach to inclusive, participatory and policy process system is paramount towards the revamping of the education sector towards improved service provision and economic development anchored on innovativeness, science, technology and engineering.</p> Munyaradzi A. Dzvimbo Funnycall Zimondi Freddy Magijani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-28 2018-12-28 1 2 p74 p74 10.30560/ier.v1n2p74 Personality Type and Persuasive Strategies in Writing of Junior High School Students <p>Workplace demands professionals with desirable personalities and influential persuasive ability. This research determined the personality type and persuasive strategies employed by Grade 9 students of San Pedro National High School, Philippines. It aimed to find its implication to the teaching of K to 12 English and persuasive writing. Using descriptive method and utilizing questionnaire as the principal tool for gathering data, the results revealed that majority of the respondents are female, had an Approaching Proficiency General Weighted Average GWA and are in the middle income. Also, both traits of extroversion and introversion are dominant among the respondents with extroversion as the more dominant. It was also revealed that significant difference exists between the persuasive strategies of the respondents when grouped according to their personality type. The study recommends a Personality Inventory Test to be distributed at the beginning of school year. Also, the research calls for inclusion of persuasive writing in K to 12 English instruction and providing students with real-based and consistent activities which can enhance their persuasive skills. Informative colloquiums dealing with personality and persuasive strategies awareness are also encouraged to hone not just personality-oriented students but also persuasive individuals required in the competitive real-life arena.</p> Richard M. Banez Bryan M. Mendoza Annielyn C. Reondanga Maila O. Villanueva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-28 2018-12-28 1 2 p84 p84 10.30560/ier.v1n2p84 Readiness in Mathematics Flipped Classroom of Filipino Secondary School Teachers <p style="text-align: justify;">School’s access to technology is increasing steadily every day and most of these technologies are now even used in classroom. Due to these circumstances, educators’ ideas of using technology to support deeper learning in multiple ways gave rise to the concepts of distance and blended learning. Hence, this study determined the readiness in Mathematics flipped classroom of selected Filipino secondary school teachers at the Division Schools of Tanauan City during the School Year 2016-2017. Specifically, it dealt with the following: profile of the respondents in terms of sex, age, highest educational attainment, and number of seminars attended related to ICT; respondents’ assessment on their readiness in Mathematics flipped classroom; and relationship between the respondents’ profile and their readiness in Mathematics flipped classroom.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">By employing the descriptive type of research with the researcher-made questionnaire, the study found out that the respondents were ready in Mathematics flipped classroom. Moreover, the results of the study revealed that there was a significant relationship between the respondents’ profile and their readiness in Mathematics flipped classroom. With these, the researchers proposed a course of action to support the readiness of Mathematics teachers in a flipped classroom.</p> Mary Jo-ann A. Juarez Nora V. Marasigan Shaira Anne P. Natanauan Gemmalyn M. Trinidad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-03 2019-01-03 1 2 p95 p95 10.30560/ier.v1n2p95