International Educational Research <p>International Educational Research (IER)&nbsp;is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal, which is published by <span lang="EN-US">IDEAS SPREAD INC</span>&nbsp;in both print and online versions. The online version is free to access and download. The journal publishes original research papers, case reports, and review articles. The journal encourages submission in but not limited to subjects of Education method, education policy and education development; Educational technology and educational psychology; Special education and cross-cultural education; Educational leadership, educational administration and educational evaluation; Training, teaching and learning, Language education.</p> IDEAS SPREAD en-US International Educational Research 2576-3059 <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.<br> This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (</p> Quality Distance Education for Early Childhood During the Corona Pandemic: The Perceptions of Female Teachers <p>The corona (Covid-19) pandemic caused the closure of kindergarten institutions and schools around the world which forced higher authorities to shift focus towards online distance education. The impact of the pandemic was so severe that it affected almost a quarter of the people lives, public health and above all the education sectors. The present study was designed according to the Servqual Model using sample perceptions of early childhood parameters in Saudi Arabia and Jordan utilizing online questionnaires to collect the responses from 157 teachers.&nbsp; The quality of the online education services provided for primary school children due to Covid-19 suffered greatly as the teachers were not accustomed to the technology of distance learning. The present study recommends the need to explore the research of the high level for primary school children’s study tool where teachers and parents will be able to deal with online platforms effectively. During the present unavoidable crisis, the article presents an easier and equitable platform for every child in the family.</p> Ibrahim Al-Hussein Aidah Mohammad Mona Al-Zahrani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-17 2021-10-17 4 2 p1 p1 10.30560/ier.v4n2p1 Core Self-Evaluation, Writing Motivation, and Business Writing Performance of College Third Year Students of Occidental Mindoro State College <p>This predictive cross-sectional study explored core self-evaluation, level of writing motivation, and their influence on the business writing performance of junior business students at Occidental Mindoro State College. One hundred fifty junior business students of Occidental Mindoro State College Main Campus in Academic Year 2020-2021 selected through a simple random sampling technique were the respondents in the study. It was found that the student’s level of core self-evaluation was moderate considering their results in the locus of control, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. However, the students are highly motivated in performing their writing activities. Therefore, the improvement in core self-evaluation may slightly improve writing motivation and writing performance. Likewise, improving writing motivation may slightly improve the writing performance of business students. The positive beta coefficients indicate that if the indicators of writing motivation are improved, the students’ writing performance becomes better. Thus, core self-evaluation and writing motivation affect students’ business writing performance.</p> Venessa S. Casanova Miracle B. Tuazon ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 4 2 p16 p16 10.30560/ier.v4n2p16 Evaluating Factors Influencing Happiness of Preclinical Students <p>This study aimed to determine factors influencing happiness in preclinical students especially in aspects of teaching and learning, students’ motivation, study habits, and academic achievement. This study was a questionnaire<strong>-</strong>based cross<strong>-</strong>sectional study. The questionnaire was validated and approved for clarity, readability, rational analysis, and comprehensiveness by the experts. Questionnaires were sent to all second and<strong>/</strong>or third<strong>-</strong>year medical students of the 2018 (328) and 2019 (329) classes, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Thailand. Cronbach’s alpha values were 0.886. The data were analyzed by the Statistical Package for Social Science version 18. From open<strong>-</strong>ended questions, the top 5 ranking factors increasing students’ happiness were teaching of instructors, content satisfaction, content understanding, free time, and handouts. Factors that had positive influences<strong>/</strong>associations with happiness of preclinical students were happiness in learning subjects taught in a particular year; satisfaction of content, study outcomes, materials, handouts, teaching motivating desire to learn, and applicability of content to medical profession; high motivation to study medicine, expected score, and the percentage of achievement of study targets; less amount of time spent on recorded<strong>-</strong>e<strong>-</strong>lecture study and internet for non<strong>-</strong>academic use; and low stress. Happiness of preclinical students was influenced by satisfaction in teaching and learning, their attitude, study habits, and academic achievement. Further studies on determining students’ happiness after improvement of teaching and learning environments, augmenting activities that enhance students’ motivation, and promoting good study habits among medical students, are required to prove whether enhancement of these factors could effectively increase students' happiness.</p> Chantacha Sitticharoon Nipith Charoenngam Issarawan Keadkraichaiwat Pailin Maikaew Vasu Lertsiripatarajit ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 4 2 p28 p28 10.30560/ier.v4n2p28 Online Class Resitation Learning Model During the Covid-19 Pandemic to Increase Outcomes Students Learning in Class Accounting Lessons <p>This study aims to determine the improvement of student learning outcomes through the online class recitation learning model during the covid-19 pandemic, on the learning process of class X1 students of the Accounting Department at SMK Negeri 1 Tompaso Baru Minahasa, totaling 14 students. The online classroom research method used is in the form of CAR (Classroom Action Research) which refers to classroom action research. In terms of treatment, learning is given that applies an online class recitation learning model.</p> <p>From the results of the analysis obtained by researchers on accounting subjects with service company accounting cycle material with the stages: Recording transactions/documents into general journals (General Entries) and posting from general journals to general ledgers (General Ledger), there is an increase in student learning outcomes. &nbsp;This increase can be seen from the percentage of student learning completeness individually and classically. This increase can be seen from the percentage of student learning completeness individually and classically. At the pre-cycle stage or before the implementation of the action, the average value of the class was 63.92 with the percentage of classical learning completeness only 35%. In the first cycle, it reached an average of 71.78 with a classical mastery level of 64.28%. While the learning outcomes in the second cycle reached an average of 77.85 with the classical learning completeness level reaching 92.85%. Likewise with student learning activities at every face-to-face online class. Student activity at the 1st meeting only reached a percentage of 56.25% with high criteria. At the second meeting it reached a percentage of 72.76% with high criteria, and at the third meeting it reached a percentage of 83.92% with very high criteria. Thus, student learning activities and student learning completeness in online classes during the COVID-19 pandemic increase by using the online class recitation learning model. With learning outcomes reaching 92.85% above the minimum learning completeness.</p> Meike D. Mamentu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-21 2022-01-21 4 2 p40 p40 10.30560/ier.v4n2p40