Comparative Study of Conventional Groundwater Quality Results with WQI Technique: A Case Study of Surjani Town, Karachi, Pakistan
Present study is aimed to calculate the water quality index (WQI) of Surjani Town by using weighted arithmetic index method to assess its suitability for drinking purpose. For calculating WQI, 12 parameters (pH, TDS, EC, Hardness, Na, Ca, K, Mg, HCO3, SO4, NO3 and Cl) have been taken into account. Except pH, all physicochemical parameters are exhibiting the maximum prominence in WQI quality rating scale (Qn) which suggests that groundwater is highly polluted. The computed value of water quality index (WQI= 331.62) is also found to be high which is comparable with enormously high concentrations of physicochemical parameters that are violating the WHO admissible limit for drinking purpose. Results revealed that the groundwater is under the influence of anthropogenic activity from nearby Jam Chakro solid waste dumping site. It is concluded that groundwater is highly deteriorated which is immensely inappropriate for drinking purpose according to WQI rating score.
Abtahi, M., Mohebbi, M. R., Saeedi, R., Montazeri, A., Vaghefi, K. A., Labbafi, S., Oktaie, S., & Mohagheghian, A. (2013). Assessment of water quality in groundwater resources of Iran using a modified drinking water quality index (DWQI). Ecological Indicators, 30, 28-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2013.02.008
Ameen, A. H. (2019). Spring water quality assessment using water quality index in villages of Barwari Bala, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Applied Water Science, 9, 176. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-019-1080-z
Brown, R. M., McClelland, N. I., Deininger, R. A., Tozer, R. G. (1970). A water quality index: Do we dare? Water & Sewage Works, 117, 339-343.
Brown, R. M., McClelland, N. I., Deininger, R. A., & O’Connor, M. F. (1972). A water quality indexcrashing the physiological barrier. Indic. Environ. Qual, 1, 173-182.
Diersing, N. (2009). Water Quality: Frequently Asked Questions. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, Key West, FL. Retrieved from http://floridakeys.noaa.gov/scisummaries/wqfaq.pdf.
Gungoa, V. (2016). Use of Water Quality Indices for Water Quality Assessment in Small Island State: A Case Study in the Northern Aquifer of Mauritius. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research, 30, 142‐150.
Horton, R. K. (1965). An index number system for rating water quality. Journal‐Water Pollution Control Federation, 37, 300‐305. http://dx.doi.org/10.26479/2019.0502.08
Khan, A., Khan, S. A., Saeed, Z., & Naz, B. (2020). Impact of Leachate Percolation on Groundwater Quality near the Municipal Open Dumpsite (Jam Chakro): A Case Study of Surjani Town, Karachi, Pakistan. International Journal of Ground Sediment & Water, 10, 541-556.
Khan, F., Husain, T., & Lumb, A. (2003). Water quality evaluation and trend analysis in selected watersheds of the Atlantic Region of Canada. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 88, 221-242. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1023/a:1025573108513.
Khwakaram, A. I., Majid, S, N., & Hama, N, Y. (2012). Determination of water quality index (WQI) for qalyasan stream in sulaimani city/ kurdistan region of iraq. Ijapes, 2(4), 148-157.
Kumar, A., & Dua, A. (2008). Water quality index for assessment of water quality of river ravi at madhopur (india). Global journal of environmental sciences, 8(1), 49-57. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.4314/gjes. v8i1.50824
Lumb, A., Sharma, T., & Bibeault, J. F. (2011). A review of genesis and evolution of waterquality index (WQI) and some future directions. Water Qual. Expo. Health, 3, 11-24.
Mitra, B. K., & ASABE Member. (1998). Spatial and temporal variation of ground water quality in sand dune area of aomori prefecture in Japan.
Priya, T. D., & Vidya, A. K. (2019). Evaluation of water quality index using physicochemical parameters of treated domestic sewage water. Life Science Informatics Publications, 5(2), 98.
Sargaonkar, A., & Deshpande, V. (2003). Development of an overall index of pollution for surface water based on a general classification scheme in Indian context. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 89, 43-67. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1023/A:1025886025137
Srebotnjak, T., Carr, G., Sherbinin, A., & Rickwood, C. (2012). A global water qualityindex and hot-deck imputation of missing data. Ecol. Indic, 17, 108-119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.ECOLIND.2011.04.023
Yogendra, K., & Puttaiah, E. (2008) Determination of water quality index and suitability of an urban waterbody in Shimoga Town, Karnataka. Paper presented at the Proceedings of Taal 2007: The 12th World Lake Conference.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).