Sustainable Development Research <p style="background: white; line-height: 14.25pt;"><em>Sustainable Development Research</em> (SDR) (ISSN 2690-9898 E-ISSN 2690-9901) is an international and cross-disciplinary scholarly, open access journal of environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability of human beings, which provides an advanced forum for studies related to sustainability and sustainable development. It provides an academic platform for professionals and researchers to contribute innovative work in the field.</p> en-US <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.<br>This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (</p> (Alex Jones) (Technical Support) Sat, 21 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0800 OJS 60 Energy Consumption in Residential Buildings: Comparison between Three Different Building Styles <p>More than one-third of the electricity generated in the world is being consumed in the residential sector. This study aims to model, simulate, and estimate electrical energy consumption in three different building styles. That is in order to compare and contrast energy consumption categories and their related social and architectural aspects for an unaddressed region that have its particular weather conditions and its special social and environmental aspects. The simulation is done by detailed modeling of the buildings using EnergyPlus. The results demonstrate that water heating systems account for almost one-fifth of the annual energy consumption. Cooling loads were found to be more than 5 times the heating loads. The peak of energy consumption was recorded to be in July, while the lowermost recorded in April and in November. The Apartment style requires the lowest annual energy consumption by an amount of 10 kWh/m<sup>2</sup> per person followed by the Duplex house with 13 kWh/m<sup>2</sup> per person, while the Single-Story house comes with the highest energy consumption of 18 kWh/m<sup>2</sup> per person. These represent local power consumption of 69, 79, and 90 kWh/m<sup>2</sup>, respectively. On average, the water heating, space cooling, plus interior lights consume about 60% of total energy requirements with a mostly equal share for each, while the equipment has the maximum share of 35% of the total, leaving about 5% for the rest. The results of this study may be used as a reference line in the future for the calculations of energy savings in similar regions.</p> Mohamed A. Umbark, Samah Khalifa Alghoul, Elhadi I. Dekam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 21 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0800 Assessment of Energy Intensity Indicators in Libya: Case Study <p>Energy-efficient technologies provide chances for money savings and reducing environmental damages related to energy use. This paper aims to assess the energy efficiency in Libya and tools to promote its implementation. In addition, it seeks to present measures and programs that could be foreseen in the transformation sector and some end users.</p> <p>Data of energy intensity in Libya was taken from different recognized sources such as World Development Indicators (WDI) - World Bank, and Enerdata web site. The data was collected, assembled, and analyzed using Ms Excel sheets. Results were plotted and compared to World average and Africa or with (Middle East and North African) MENA countries where ever data is available. The main indicators over almost quarter of a century (1990-2014) were presented and changes over this period were indicated.</p> <p>It could be concluded that primary energy intensity for Libya during (2000- 2014) is comparable to world average values and for Africa and the final energy intensity has increased at only 0.7% per year during the same period. As an oil producer and exporter country, the ratio of final enrgy intensity to primary energy intensity in Libya has increased at a rate of 1.1% during (2000-2014), which is greater than the World average and African countries.&nbsp; The rate of energy intensity of transport has increased by 6.9 % per year for the period (1990-2014) and 7.8% per year for the period (2000-2014) compared to the world improvement (-1.8%) per year and for Africa (-0.3) % per year for the period (2000-2014)). This is due to lack of regulations and measures concerning this sector and increased number of private cars. Suitable measures and policies should be taken towards this sector to improve its performance since it contributes to the highest share of energy consumption. The highest share of electric energy consumption is at residential, then commercial and service end use, followed by street lighting. There is a good potential for energy saving at these sectors.</p> Wedad El-Osta, Usama Elghawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 26 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0800 Prediction Model of Elastic Modulus for Granular Road Bases <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">The estimation of elastic modulus for road bases is the primary objective of this research which is implemented a significant role in transmitting the vertical loading to the pavement foundation layers. In this study, the effect of weathering conditions on the stiffness of base course is investigated and implied the durability test by subjecting the prepared samples to a different numbers of wet-dry cycles (0,2, 4, 6, 8 and 10). A conventional base materials of local natural gravel aggregate and treated base materials with recycled concrete aggregate RCA at different percentages (0%, 25%, 50% 75% and 100%) is adopted in this research.</span></p> <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">The elastic characteristics are estimated in terms of elastic modulus. Elastic modulus are estimated by passing the ultrasonic pulse velocity through the untreated and treated base materials laboratory specimens. This test can be used to study the elastic modulus properties of base materials. A multiple linear regression analysis is used for prediction the elastic modulus using the SPSS (software ver.21). Elastic Modulus (kPa) is the dependent variable whereas the independent variable are; No. of wet- dry cycle and Percent (%) of RCA stabilizer. The obtained results for elastic modulus (Es) of granular base material layer showed increasing in elastic modulus with percentage of RCA%., results revealed that the (Es) values reached a maximum value of (6927kPa) for 100%.</span></p> <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">For the OMC’s values increases due to the percentage increment of RCA in granular base material mixture, this increment in water contents is refer to high absorption capacity of the paste clinging to the RCA. On other side the dry density decrease gradually with adding percentage of (RCA) in granular base material mixture.</span></p> Zainab Ahmed Alkaissi, Hassan Adnan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 02 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0800 Chronicle of Exogenous Factors Influencing Infrastructure Maintenance in Residential Core of Akure, Nigeria <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">The thrust of this study is to reveal exogenous factors limiting effective infrastructure maintenance in the core of Akure. In the course of the study, 425 questionnaires were administered and retrieved from residents in this locale. Variables in this set of questionnaire were investigated analytically using Excel and SPSS software. Findings from the study revealed that attitude of misuse of facilities, ignorance, indiscipline, insufficient fund and age of facilities were the major antithetical factors affecting infrastructure maintenance in the core of Akure. It was equally unveiled empirically that bureaucratic reporting process, lack of discernible maintenance culture and poor response to maintenance request contributed to infrastructure maintenance challenges in the area. In view of this, the study recommends public enlightenment program for residents in this area to make judicious use of infrastructure assets in their domain. It equally advocates creative synergy between government and the governed through public-private partnership (PPP) initiative for effective maintenance and prompt repairs or replacement of ageing facilities in this locale.</span></p> Olasemojo R. O, Owoeye J. O ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 02 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0800 The Usage of Non-Wood Forest Products - Culinary and Artisanal Traditions in Romania <p>Non-wood forest products are essential for numerous industrial branches, as well as for the creation of culinary and artisanal products. From this point of view, Romania has numerous such products. The present article succinctly describes ten products resulted from the local usage of some non-wood forest products: porcini soup in Bucovina (Porcinis mushrooms -<em>Boletus edulis</em>-); hârzobi in Neamt (trout fish- <em>Salmo trutta fario</em>); common beech trout in Covasna (<em>Pleurotus ostreatus</em> mushrooms); truffles-<em>Tuber sp</em>.- zacusca (stew) in Bucharest; holopchi with porridge and porcini or honey mushrooms in Moisei; fir bellows cheese in Bran Moeciu; brandy from bird cherry fruits (<em>Prunus avium</em>) in Brad; tinder mushroom (<em>Inonotus obliquus</em>) in Harghita; fir’s needles for dead wreaths in Sibiu; rattle, rich snowdrop flowers, dried crocus flowers, roots and bark (privet bark, black alder bark, buckthorn bark) in Botiza. Knowing and promoting (creating local brands) these products is extremely important.</p> Lucian Dincă, Voichița Timiș-Gânsac ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 05 May 2020 00:00:00 +0800 Interlinkages between Indicators of Sustainable Development Goals: Evidence from Seven Low Income and Lower Middle-Income Countries <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">In 2015, 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were adopted by member states of United Nations as a blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all. Up to date, the global indicator of framework of SDGs has 247 indicators (including repetitive indicators), which monitor progress of achieving the SDGs. The interlinkages and integration of SDG indicators have attracted attention from scholars and practitioners, however, there is limited existing knowledge of the interlinkages and interactions between SDG indicators in low income and lower middle-income countries.</span></p> <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">This article therefore uses data from seven low income and lower middle-income countries to analyze the interlinkages between SDG indicators 9.2.1 and 9.4.1, which monitors the level of industrialization and energy efficiency in manufacturing sector respectively. It is widely believed that higher level industrialization will reduce energy emission per manufacturing value added. However, the results suggest that beyond traditional knowledge, in the seven selected countries, SDG indicators 9.2.1 and 9.4.1 are positively associated with each other. A possible reason of this unconventional finding is the country context, as in low income and lower middle-income countries the manufacturing industries are usually not energy-extensive, although not technology-intensive either. This article also calls for holistic and integrated approaches to use and interpret SDG indicators in line with the national and regional context.</span></p> Suyu Liu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0800 Considerations Concerning the Oldest Stands from Banatului Mountains, Romania <p>The present study was realized in Banatului Mountains (Romanian Carpathians) within Nera, Caransebeș and Băile Herculane Forest Districts, based on forest management plans from 1991-2008 and has led to the identification of 394 stand elements older than 200 years. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the trees’ main qualitative characteristics (age), the stands’ structural characteristics (consistency, composition, average diameter and average height) as well as the stational characteristics (altitude, slope, soil type). The main focus was to identify the oldest stands from Banatului Mountains.&nbsp;</p> <p>The present paper presents the oldest 18 stands as well as their most representative characteristics: diameter, height, consistency, slope, altitude, soil, site and structure. The oldest stand identified in this area is a 260-year-old common beech stand from Nera with heights between 36-38 meters and a diameter of 98 meters. Furthermore, it has been observed that common beech stands have a normal consistency, while their structure is relatively uneven-age. The research has shown that the surface occupied by old common beech stands that have reached their exploitability age is of 60.978 ha, namely 13% of the total surface of these forests. The site conditions where they are spread are characterised by preponderantly Northeast and South-West expositions, fields with slopes of 21-30 degrees, average altitudes of 900-1000 m, eutric cambisol and luvisol soils and medium and superior reliability sites.</p> Voichița Timiș Gânsac, Lucian Dincă, Gabriel Cheregi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 30 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0800