Sustainable Development Research 2021-03-01T04:58:21+08:00 Alex Jones Open Journal Systems <p style="background: white; line-height: 14.25pt;"><em>Sustainable Development Research</em> (SDR) (ISSN 2690-9898 E-ISSN 2690-9901) is an international and cross-disciplinary scholarly, open access journal of environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability of human beings, which provides an advanced forum for studies related to sustainability and sustainable development. It provides an academic platform for professionals and researchers to contribute innovative work in the field.&nbsp;</p> <p style="background: white; line-height: 14.25pt;"><em>Sustainable Development Research</em> (SDR) is quarterly, published in March, June, September and December. It&nbsp;is an international, peer-reviewed, open-access journal, published by IDEAS SPREAD in United&nbsp;States. The journal accepts article submissions online or by e-mail.</p> Vulnerabilities in Russian Agriculture to Climate Change 2021-03-01T04:58:21+08:00 Stephen K. Wegren <p>Russia’s agricultural sector has experienced a significant rebound in production since 2000, becoming the leading wheat exporter in the world in six of the past agricultural years. Not only has Russia’s role in the international food trade system become more important, as the world’s population continues to increase Russia grain will become even more significant, especially to politically volatile regions where food riots have contributed to pressures for regime change. While analysts are cognizant of the effects of climate change and impacts on Russian agricultural production, little thought has been given to the pathways for a transition from industrial agriculture. The article identifies four vulnerabilities to the agricultural sector from climate change in the world and in Russia. The article discusses the dislocations that may occur during a transition from industrial agriculture. The final section considers alternative models for moving away from industrial agriculture, concluding that the market-driven approach in which private industry leads the transition by “going green” is the most politically viable in Russia.</p> 2021-01-06T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Comparative Study between Jordanian Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (U-Value) and International Building Codes, With Thermal Bridges Effect Investigation 2021-03-01T04:58:20+08:00 Ammar Alkhalidi Suhil Kiwan Haya Hamasha <p>Depletion of fossil fuel and the environmental effect associated with the use of it have made the topic of “thermal insulation regulations” a major concern in country Jordan and worldwide. This paper reviews the overall heat transfer coefficient U-value in Jordanian code for the building envelope, which represents how much the building envelope transfer heat to the outside environment. U-value was reviewed with respect to the following factors, heating degree days, the heating load required to achieve thermal comfort. Based on the review a new U-value of 0.65 W/m<sup>2</sup>.K was proposed and it was found that this value reduces the energy demand almost 50%. Moreover, the thermal bridge effect was investigated and it was found that an obvious increase in the U-value is present when having thermal bridges; this will affect the energy demand, almost 200%.</p> 2021-01-12T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Lesson of Sustainability Given by The Tropical Modernism in Kinshasa: The BCB Headquarters by Maurice Houyoux 2021-03-01T04:58:19+08:00 Alexis Tshiunza Manlio Michieletto Olatunde Adedayo <p>The tropical region is often considered as a region where the sun shines intensely and the temperature varies at certain times of the year. In the case of Congo, the average weather condition is considered cool, however, there have been cases where the temperature reached up to 43° C. It is therefore imperative for buildings in this region to take into account the temperature variation while considering the comfort of the users. During the design and construction of the Bank of Belgian Congo, the availability of data to assist the architect Maurice Houyoux in meeting the challenge of the region was unavailable. The architect had to be creative in planning and overcoming the challenges posed by the environment. This paper seeks to examine the issues confronted by Maurice Houyoux and the design solutions he provided to ensure that the building was functional and responded to the tropical challenges. In undertaking this study, a historical approach was adopted through the review of relevant literature on the building and designs within the period of the development of the bank. An observation method was also deployed to verify some of the information found in the literature. The findings are presented using pictures and sketches to explain some of the key issues relevant to the design of the bank. The findings showed that despite the reduced number of published data for designing in such a region, the architect was able to examine the existing buildings and discuss with users of other constructions to obtain relevant data. The findings also showed that the building was able to respond to peculiar requirements to be functional. The paper concludes that the local building materials and traditional builders can be used to achieve a contemporary building that fits into the context towards sustainable architecture.</p> 2021-02-20T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Survey on Ten Years of Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problems: Mathematical Models, Solution Methods and Real-Life Applications 2021-03-01T04:58:19+08:00 D. G. N. D. Jayarathna G. H. J. Lanel Z. A. M. S. Juman <p>A crucial practical issue encountered in logistics management is the circulation of final products from depots to end-user customers. When routing and scheduling systems are improved, they will not only improve customer satisfaction but also increase the capacity to serve a large number of customers minimizing time. On the assumption that there is only one depot, the key issue of distribution is generally identified and formulated as VRP standing for Vehicle Routing Problem. In case, a company having more than one depot, the suggested VRP is most unlikely to work out. In view of resolving this limitation and proposing alternatives, VRP with multiple depots and multi-depot MDVRP have been a focus of this paper. Carrying out a comprehensive analytical literature survey of past ten years on cost-effective Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing is the main aim of this research. Therefore, the current status of the MDVRP along with its future developments is reviewed at length in the paper.</p> 2021-02-27T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##