Sustainable Development Research https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/sdr <p style="background: white; line-height: 14.25pt;"><em>Sustainable Development Research</em> (SDR)&nbsp;is an international and cross-disciplinary scholarly, open access journal of environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability of human beings, which provides an advanced forum for studies related to sustainability and sustainable development. It provides an academic platform for professionals and researchers to contribute innovative work in the field.</p> IDEAS SPREAD en-US Sustainable Development Research <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.<br>This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).</p> Energy Consumption in Residential Buildings: Comparison between Three Different Building Styles https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/sdr/article/view/470 <p>More than one-third of the electricity generated in the world is being consumed in the residential sector. This study aims to model, simulate, and estimate electrical energy consumption in three different building styles. That is in order to compare and contrast energy consumption categories and their related social and architectural aspects for an unaddressed region that have its particular weather conditions and its special social and environmental aspects. The simulation is done by detailed modeling of the buildings using EnergyPlus. The results demonstrate that water heating systems account for almost one-fifth of the annual energy consumption. Cooling loads were found to be more than 5 times the heating loads. The peak of energy consumption was recorded to be in July, while the lowermost recorded in April and in November. The Apartment style requires the lowest annual energy consumption by an amount of 10 kWh/m<sup>2</sup> per person followed by the Duplex house with 13 kWh/m<sup>2</sup> per person, while the Single-Story house comes with the highest energy consumption of 18 kWh/m<sup>2</sup> per person. These represent local power consumption of 69, 79, and 90 kWh/m<sup>2</sup>, respectively. On average, the water heating, space cooling, plus interior lights consume about 60% of total energy requirements with a mostly equal share for each, while the equipment has the maximum share of 35% of the total, leaving about 5% for the rest. The results of this study may be used as a reference line in the future for the calculations of energy savings in similar regions.</p> Mohamed A. Umbark Samah Khalifa Alghoul Elhadi I. Dekam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-03-21 2020-03-21 2 1 p1 p1 10.30560/sdr.v2n1p1 Assessment of Energy Intensity Indicators in Libya: Case Study https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/sdr/article/view/468 <p>Energy-efficient technologies provide chances for money savings and reducing environmental damages related to energy use. This paper aims to assess the energy efficiency in Libya and tools to promote its implementation. In addition, it seeks to present measures and programs that could be foreseen in the transformation sector and some end users.</p> <p>Data of energy intensity in Libya was taken from different recognized sources such as World Development Indicators (WDI) - World Bank, and Enerdata web site. The data was collected, assembled, and analyzed using Ms Excel sheets. Results were plotted and compared to World average and Africa or with (Middle East and North African) MENA countries where ever data is available. The main indicators over almost quarter of a century (1990-2014) were presented and changes over this period were indicated.</p> <p>It could be concluded that primary energy intensity for Libya during (2000- 2014) is comparable to world average values and for Africa and the final energy intensity has increased at only 0.7% per year during the same period. As an oil producer and exporter country, the ratio of final enrgy intensity to primary energy intensity in Libya has increased at a rate of 1.1% during (2000-2014), which is greater than the World average and African countries.&nbsp; The rate of energy intensity of transport has increased by 6.9 % per year for the period (1990-2014) and 7.8% per year for the period (2000-2014) compared to the world improvement (-1.8%) per year and for Africa (-0.3) % per year for the period (2000-2014)). This is due to lack of regulations and measures concerning this sector and increased number of private cars. Suitable measures and policies should be taken towards this sector to improve its performance since it contributes to the highest share of energy consumption. The highest share of electric energy consumption is at residential, then commercial and service end use, followed by street lighting. There is a good potential for energy saving at these sectors.</p> Wedad El-Osta Usama Elghawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-03-26 2020-03-26 2 1 p9 p9 10.30560/sdr.v2n1p9