Interlinkages between Indicators of Sustainable Development Goals: Evidence from Seven Low Income and Lower Middle-Income Countries

  • Suyu Liu Vienna, Austria
Keywords: SDGs, Indicators; Interlinkage, Manufacturing development, Country context


In 2015, 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were adopted by member states of United Nations as a blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all. Up to date, the global indicator of framework of SDGs has 247 indicators (including repetitive indicators), which monitor progress of achieving the SDGs. The interlinkages and integration of SDG indicators have attracted attention from scholars and practitioners, however, there is limited existing knowledge of the interlinkages and interactions between SDG indicators in low income and lower middle-income countries.

This article therefore uses data from seven low income and lower middle-income countries to analyze the interlinkages between SDG indicators 9.2.1 and 9.4.1, which monitors the level of industrialization and energy efficiency in manufacturing sector respectively. It is widely believed that higher level industrialization will reduce energy emission per manufacturing value added. However, the results suggest that beyond traditional knowledge, in the seven selected countries, SDG indicators 9.2.1 and 9.4.1 are positively associated with each other. A possible reason of this unconventional finding is the country context, as in low income and lower middle-income countries the manufacturing industries are usually not energy-extensive, although not technology-intensive either. This article also calls for holistic and integrated approaches to use and interpret SDG indicators in line with the national and regional context.


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