Catalyzing the inclusion of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) in Tanzania`s Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)

  • Ronnie James Karukuni Murungu WaterAid East Africa, Rwanda
  • Olutayo Bankole Bolawole WaterAid East Africa, Rwanda
  • Collins Otieno Pan African Climate Justice Alliance, Kenya
  • Charles Mwangi Pan African Climate Justice Alliance, Kenya
  • Musololo Onditi Climate Change Experts
  • Henry Kazula Climate Change Experts
Keywords: climate change, water sanitation and hygiene, nationally determined contributions, Tanzania


Tanzania continues to experience more frequent precipitation extremes such as droughts and heavy rainfall. These temperature and extreme weather events particularly droughts, heavy rains and flooding are predicted to increase further in both frequency and severity in the future. According to various studies these impacts are expected to include profound changes in water availability among other implications. The Government of Tanzania (GoT) estimates the annual economic costs of addressing climate change impacts to be about 1% of the country’s GDP. This figure could rise to 2% by the year 2030. As part of its climate change response plans, Tanzania has ratified the Paris Agreement and is currently reviewing its National Determined Contributions (NDCs). The nexus between Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) and NDCs in the Tanzania policy framework falls within the Water, Health, and Waste Management sectors. Review of the NDCs shows an implicit inclusion of WASH but only as it relates to water resource management and health as adaptation priorities, and waste management as a mitigation priority. The NDC WASH commitments do not fully cover global WASH indicators and do not explicitly articulate the linkages between WASH and implementation in the areas of Water, Health and Waste Management. Given the change of context since 2015 and in the circumstances of COVID19, which has created further challenges in WASH service delivery, the government should consider integrating relevant WASH targets in the ongoing NDCs review process to speed up its commitment to reduce green emission, boost sufficient availability of quality water, and thus positively impact sanitization practices.


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