Learning the English Passive Voice: A Comparative Study on Input Flooding and Input Enhancement Techniques

  • M. Rashtchi Islamic Azad University, Iran
  • F. Etebari Islamic Azad University, Iran
Keywords: input enhancement, input flooding, English grammar, passive voice


The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of input flooding and input enhancement on grammar knowledge of passive voice among Iranian EFL learners. Preliminary English Test (PET) was administered to 75 learners who were in six intact classes in a language institute in Tehran. Sixty female low-intermediate learners whose scores fell within the range of ±1 standard deviation were selected. These classes were then randomly assigned to receive two different treatments. Three classes in the experimental group one (Input Enhancement Group) were exposed to passive structures through input enhancement guidelines, and the three classes in the experimental group two (Input Flooding Group) received the same materials drawing on the guidelines in line with input flooding procedures. It should be noted that the 15 discarded participants were present in the classes, but their scores were not considered in the data analysis. The reason for selecting six classes was the limited number of students in each class. However, the classes were taught by the same teacher to control teacher variable. The results of the pretest showed that the groups were homogeneous regarding their knowledge about the English passive voice. After the treatment, the participants sat for the posttest, which was identical to the pretest to measure their gain of the passive structures. The results indicated that both input flooding and input enhancement significantly affected the grammar knowledge of the passive voice. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the effects of input flooding and input enhancement in improving the knowledge of passive voice of the participants.

Results of the normality on four sets of data