International Linguistics Research https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ilr <p>International Linguistics Research (ILR) is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal published by <span lang="EN-US">IDEAS SPREAD INC</span>. The journal encourages submission in but not limited to subjects of linguistics, including theoretical linguistics, descriptive linguistics and applied linguistics. In addition to the broad area of language research, the creative approaches to language learning and teaching are also involved, leading linguistics to a higher level of cognitive development. The linguistic research contributes to cooperation of people groups throughout the world. Abundant and professional resources of linguistics are needed to meet a wide and infinitely varied range of communicative goals. From this perspective, the journal aims to improve the communicative power of the language and consolidate the national language communicative tool available to speakers. International Linguistics Research (ILR) also provides the opportunities for sharing the resources among members of the academic community. <br>The journal is published in both print and online versions. The online version is free access and download.</p> en-US <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.<br>This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).</p> ilr@ideasspread.org (Sarah Lane) service@ideasspread.org (Technical Support) Thu, 23 Apr 2020 23:51:09 +0800 OJS 3.1.0.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 The Narrative about the History of the Shenekhen Buryats https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ilr/article/view/393 <p>The article is devoted to the narrative written by Bodongut Abida about the history of the emigration of the Aga Buryats to China at the beginning of the XX century, which was of an economic and ethno-protective nature. The aim of this research is to introduce into scientific circulation a new document on the history of Buryat emigration. &nbsp;In the Soviet historiography until now days, it was customary to keep silent about the emigration of the Buryats to China. The main attention is focused on the content of the written monument in the Old Mongolian script. The structure of the work is considered. For the first time is given the biographical information about Bodongut Abida. The data used for this research were taken from this document and the Buryat chronicles written in Old Mongolian script in XIX century. Based on the results of the analysis, it was found that the process of loss of the native language and the ethnic identity among the Buryats of China received significantly less development than the Buryat ethnos in Russia. The empirical material shows that the one of the most important factors in the consolidation of the ethnic group and the ethnic identity of the Shenekhen Buryats is the language, the possession of the Mongolian script, which is the traditional letter of the Mongolian peoples. Besides the sense of national pride and national self-awareness, as well as the factor of the compact settlement of the ethnos in the dominant Mongolian-speaking environment are the factors of their consolidation. In addition, the present state of the language and culture of the Shenekhen Buryats is presented, based on the expedition materials of the author of this paper.</p> L. B. Badmaeva ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ilr/article/view/393 Fri, 24 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0800 A Study of East Loloan Communities’ Ritual Activities Spoken in Balinese Malay Language https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ilr/article/view/443 <p>The purpose of this study was to examine the discourse of Balinese Malay-language rituals activities which includes (a) the structure of discourse, (b) cohesion, (c) metalinguistic analysis, and (d) cultural context; and the dynamics of traditional discourse and Balinese Malay-language culture in the community. This study applied the theory of discourse analysis that viewed the language used in context, which means that people can communicate because they understand discourse (text), context, and patterns or structure. The choice of the informants was by applying the purposive sampling method with certain criteria. The data was obtained through semi-structured interviews. The research location was in East Loloan, as the center of Balinese Malay language speakers. The research findings showed that the discourse of traditional activities and Balinese Malay-language culture used language (microstructure) which was classified as the barrel of an oral language, so that the speech style was clearly visible, both in the structure of discourse, the use of cohesion, and its metalinguistic elements. Meanwhile, in the language (macro structure) it was seen that the use of language for the disclosure of Malay culture that was closely related to Islam/Moslem religion. This could be seen in the co-text of the use of the terms <em>silaturahmi, ngangini</em>, and the context of the use of cultural symbols such as <em>penyingset</em> as a symbol of the men paying attention to and respecting women in traditional customs. Furthermore, in the dynamics of cultural discourse, there appeared to be an attraction between the retention of identity and accommodation in situations and conditions that lead to be changed by the time.</p> I Nyoman Suparwa, Anak Agung Putu Putra, Ni Luh Gede Liswahyuningsih ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ilr/article/view/443 Thu, 28 May 2020 00:00:00 +0800 The The Syntax of Personal Pronouns in the Bima Language https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ilr/article/view/571 <p>This article aims at describing the syntactic properties and distributions of Personal Pronouns in the Bima Language, a language spoken by approximately 9000 people who inhabit the eastern part of Sumbawa Island. This number of speakers does not include those who live in Reo Pota Manggarai, East Nusa Tenggara. The Bima Language is grouped into Sumba-Bima Subgroup of Central Malayo-Polynesian (CMP) branch of Austronesian Language. Data in this study are the linguistic units from morphems level to clausal level. The data were taken from conversations and monologues recorded in the real situations in which the Bima Language is used. The focus of this paper is to describe the personal pronoun system of the Bima Language, describing types of personal pronouns and their syntactic properties and distributions. Based on the analysis, the Bima Language has a set of morphologically independent personal pronouns (full pronouns) and a set of clitics. Both sets of personal pronouns show the same syntactic properties and distributions. These two sets of personal pronouns are able to occur as independent clausal arguments of both intransitive and transitive constructions. In addition to their distributions, these two sets of personal pronouns can occur with numerals, relatives, and NPs. However, only full personal pronouns can combine with demonstratives.</p> Arafiq Arafiq ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ilr/article/view/571 Mon, 01 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0800 Semiotics of Roland Barthes in Symbols Systems of Javanese Wedding Ceremony https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ilr/article/view/588 <p>This study is aimed to explain the interpretation of symbols systems in Javanese wedding ceremony. The symbol patterns can be categorized into leaves symbols, vegetable symbols, flowers symbols, food and drinks symbols, Javanese traditional instrumental music (<em>gending-gending</em>), and thread of marriage processions. The data of this study were collected by in-depth interview techniques, participant observation, and documentation. The data were analyzed with the Miles and Huberman interactive models. Data analysis reveals that substantial meanings of the symbols in Javanese wedding ceremony are of advice, prayers, descriptions, parables, and responsibilities. The first, an advice for a bridge/a bridegroom is to have a well foundation, always to love each other, to become a reassuring spouse, to be considerate and think clearly, to have tender heart, and to respect their parents. The second, prayers are delivered in order that the bride and bridegroom have abundant lawful or <em>halal </em>fortune or wealth, have good offsprings, keep away from life barriers. The third, description means that the bridge looks like a beautiful queen and a bridegroom is associated to a handsome and dashing king. The fourth, a parable of marriage is alike to wade the ocean with big waves and storms. The fifth, a responsibility is due to a husband to make a hay or earn money and a wife to manage it then they work together to obtain the goal of marriage. The connotative meaning is flourished to become a myth that marriage ceremony is equipped with standard of symbols that will build the happy and everlasting marriage.</p> Mohamad Jazeri, Susanto Susanto ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ilr/article/view/588 Thu, 18 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0800