International Linguistics Research <p>International Linguistics Research (ILR) is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal published by <span lang="EN-US">IDEAS SPREAD INC</span>. The journal encourages submission in but not limited to subjects of linguistics, including theoretical linguistics, descriptive linguistics and applied linguistics. In addition to the broad area of language research, the creative approaches to language learning and teaching are also involved, leading linguistics to a higher level of cognitive development. The linguistic research contributes to cooperation of people groups throughout the world. Abundant and professional resources of linguistics are needed to meet a wide and infinitely varied range of communicative goals. From this perspective, the journal aims to improve the communicative power of the language and consolidate the national language communicative tool available to speakers. International Linguistics Research (ILR) also provides the opportunities for sharing the resources among members of the academic community. <br>The journal is published in both print and online versions. The online version is free access and download.</p> IDEAS SPREAD en-US International Linguistics Research 2576-2974 <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.<br>This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (</p> An Experimental Verification of Some Cross-linguistic Sound Symbolisms <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">A recent investigation of 6452 languages (Blasi et al., 2016) uncovered a number of cross-linguistic correspondences between speech sounds and meaning. For example, the phone [z] was associated with the meaning ‘star.’ In the present study, 16 of these sound symbolisms were tested by presenting English and Spanish speakers with pairs of nonce words along with a definition of the words. Their task was to choose the word that sounded best with the meaning given. One member of the pair of words contained phones found to be associated with the meaning of the word while the other did not. For instance, participants were asked to choose between [zolz] and [folf] as the word they felt was most likely to mean ‘star. ‘ Seven of the sound and meaning correspondences observed in the study by Blasi et al. (2016) were corroborated by both Spanish and English speakers. Three additional sound correspondences were only significant in one of the experimental languages. </span></p> David Ellingson Eddington ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-10-21 2021-10-21 4 4 p1 p1 10.30560/ilr.v4n4p1 The Study on Translation of Culture-loaded Words in Aerial ChinaⅠ- Jiangxi from the Perspective of Semantic and Communicative Translation <p><em>Aerial China</em><em>Ⅰ- Jiangxi</em> has been widely accepted by foreign audiences. In this documentary, there are many culture-loaded words with Jiangxi cultural characteristics. We all know that the translation of Chinese culturally-loaded words has long been a tricky problem. Take the translation of culture loaded words in <em>Aerial China</em><em>Ⅰ- Jiangxi</em> as an example, this paper discusses how Newmark's communicative translation and semantic translation theory are applied to the translation of Chinese culture loaded words. It is considered that semantic translation and communicative translation are not completely opposite but complement each other. Good translation works are usually the perfect combination of the two. In order to help translators better translate culture loaded words and achieve the real purpose of cross-cultural communication.</p> Yang Jing Chen Xuebin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-22 2021-11-22 4 4 p9 p9 10.30560/ilr.v4n4p9 The Importance of Writing Scoring Rubrics for Saudi EFL Teachers <p>This mixed-method study explored the perspectives of Saudi EFL teachers concerning the use of Writing Scoring Rubrics (WSRs) to correct students' written work and instruct EFL writing classes. The study sample included 106 Saudi EFL teachers, who answered the twenty-one close-ended questions and the first open-ended question, with twenty-five answering the second open-ended question. The findings reveal that the teachers frequently employed in-class correction and feedback to correct their students' written work, with nearly one-third used assessment techniques that included WSRs, self-assessment, peer editing, journals, and portfolios. The results of the second question indicate that Saudi EFL teachers generally engage students in creating customized WSRs. The findings also revealed that Saudi EFL teachers consider WSRs beneficial to both students and teachers and might be viewed by some experienced EFL teachers as a practical correction or assessment method that improves students' writing. Therefore, this study contributes to a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of WSRs in teaching and assessing writing skills.</p> Hayat Rasheed Alamri Rania Daifullah Adawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-29 2021-11-29 4 4 p16 p16 10.30560/ilr.v4n4p16 The Grammaticalization of Catalan anar (‘to go’) + Infinitive for the Expression of Perfective Past: A Diachronic, Corpus-Based Perspective <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">This study constitutes an exploratory analysis of the grammaticalization cline of <em>anar</em> (‘to go’) + infinitive in Catalan to express perfective past (e.g., <em>va arribar</em> ‘s/he arrived’). Our research interest primarily lies in diachronically tracing the evolution of this grammatical change, which appears to be unprecedented in other Romance languages (e.g., Spanish, French), in which the construction has instead led to the expression of a near and/or intentional future. A gap in research is found in the fact that there have been few corpus-based, pragmatic approaches to the matter. We base our theoretical framework on the definition of grammaticalization by Hopper and Traugott (2003) and a number of related publications (Alturo 2017, Pérez-Saldanya &amp; Hualde 2003). Critical items (N=346) were retrieved from the diachronic corpus CICA (11th-18th c.) and subsequently analyzed in the light of pragmatic factors, establishing a three-stage cline based on Segura (2012). Results show how informative bridging contexts are in shaping grammaticalization processes, as they highlight the challenges of tracing a grammaticalization process based on corpora of literary texts. A discussion follows on the identification of potential next steps that might be useful in complementing our own research.</span></p> Marc Gandarillas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-12 2022-01-12 4 4 p30 p30 10.30560/ilr.v4n4p30 Learning the Disciplines Through Linguistic Feedback: Contribution to the Development of a Discipline-Specific, Formative Evaluation of Students’ Assignments <p>Students write to learn. Besides, enculturation to the disciplinary discourse happens during writing. Feedback on the assignments from the students scaffolds students’ writing development and learning paths. However, knowledge about the relationship between language, including argumentation in the discipline, on one hand, and the content of the discipline, on the other, is needed. This article is based on a socio-cultural approach to writing in the disciplines, and theory on feedback, and focuses on the relationship between the meso-level of texts (sentences, clauses, word choice) and the content of the discipline. &nbsp;We discuss how insight into the meso-level of texts may be used to improve and to develop feedback and formative evaluation. Cases from an intervention project in a Danish upper secondary school are included, and indicate that teachers and students assign a lower priority to feedback on the meso-level. This article claims that providing feedback on the meso-level strengthens writing development and students’ learning processes. To illustrate how this may be accomplished two texts are analyzed: one from a history class and one from a biology class.</p> Vibeke Christensen Peter Hobel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-01-12 2022-01-12 4 4 p38 p38 10.30560/ilr.v4n4p38