International Linguistics Research <p>International Linguistics Research (ILR) is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal published by <span lang="EN-US">IDEAS SPREAD INC</span>. The journal encourages submission in but not limited to subjects of linguistics, including theoretical linguistics, descriptive linguistics and applied linguistics. In addition to the broad area of language research, the creative approaches to language learning and teaching are also involved, leading linguistics to a higher level of cognitive development. The linguistic research contributes to cooperation of people groups throughout the world. Abundant and professional resources of linguistics are needed to meet a wide and infinitely varied range of communicative goals. From this perspective, the journal aims to improve the communicative power of the language and consolidate the national language communicative tool available to speakers. International Linguistics Research (ILR) also provides the opportunities for sharing the resources among members of the academic community. <br>The journal is published in both print and online versions. The online version is free access and download.</p> IDEAS SPREAD en-US International Linguistics Research 2576-2974 <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.<br>This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (</p> A Comparison of Rhetorical Move Analysis by GPT-4 and Humans in Abstracts of Scopus-Indexed Tourism Research Articles <p>AI advancements have made ChatGPT a remarkable and versatile tool in education and linguistics, showcasing its potential to mimic human conversation and comprehend language. Scholars are intrigued by ChatGPT’s text data handling, yet its application in rhetorical move analysis remains largely unexplored. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the ability of GPT-4 in the identification of rhetorical moves employed in the abstracts of tourism research articles indexed in Scopus. The essentiality of moves was also reported. Additionally, this research seeks to compare the accuracy of GPT-4’s analysis with that of humans. Adopting Hyland’s (2000) five-move model, the results indicated that GPT-4 analyzes moves more quickly but less accurately than human experts, and the four principal types of errors committed by GPT-4 include redundancy/over-count, unmatched categorization, incorrect sequence, and vague identification. The findings also revealed that Move 2 (Purpose) and Move 4 (Findings) are obligatory with a 100% essentiality rate through both GPT-4 and human analysis. Differences arise in certain steps of Move 1 (Introduction), Move 3 (Methods), and Move 5 (Conclusion), where GPT-4 often sees higher essentiality rates. This study shed light on the testament to AI’s current capabilities in move analysis in academic discourse.</p> Hui Geng Vahid Nimehchisalem Mohsen Zargar Jayakaran Mukundan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-05 2024-06-05 7 2 p1 p1 10.30560/ilr.v7n2p1 Gender- and Age-related Constraints in Japanese Politeness Marking: A Statistical Analysis of the Tokyo Story Characters’ Usage of Keigo <p>This quantitative study explores the relationship between three sociological factors (age, gender and possible in-law relationship) and the use of Japanese honorifics (<em>keigo</em>). Statistical analyses are conducted on the occurrence of Japanese politeness markers found in the script of the movie <em>Tokyo Story</em> directed by Yasujiro Ozu in 1953. Results notably confirm the highly significant correlation between age, gender and the use of <em>keigo</em>, women and younger speakers using consistently more politeness markers than men and older speakers, even though Japanese polite speech does not seem to reflect the order of magnitude derived from the age difference numeric value but only the acknowledgement of one interactant’s seniority.</p> <p>The study also delves into the distinction between the mere presence of <em>keigo</em> in discourse and its intensity of use in actual speech (i.e. number of politeness markers), revealing complex relationships. For example, same-sex dyads exhibit different patterns of politeness, with men-to-men politeness associated more with the former and women-to-women politeness more with the latter. The interplay between age and gender in <em>keigo</em> use seems to defy systematic rules, highlighting the importance of considering unique gender- and age-based pairings, in other words: distinct categories of address styles that are both interrelated and individual.</p> Albéric Derible ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-07 2024-06-07 7 2 p13 p13 10.30560/ilr.v7n2p13