International Linguistics Research https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ilr <p>International Linguistics Research (ILR) is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal published by <span lang="EN-US">IDEAS SPREAD INC</span>. The journal encourages submission in but not limited to subjects of linguistics, including theoretical linguistics, descriptive linguistics and applied linguistics. In addition to the broad area of language research, the creative approaches to language learning and teaching are also involved, leading linguistics to a higher level of cognitive development. The linguistic research contributes to cooperation of people groups throughout the world. Abundant and professional resources of linguistics are needed to meet a wide and infinitely varied range of communicative goals. From this perspective, the journal aims to improve the communicative power of the language and consolidate the national language communicative tool available to speakers. International Linguistics Research (ILR) also provides the opportunities for sharing the resources among members of the academic community. <br>The journal is published in both print and online versions. The online version is free access and download.</p> IDEAS SPREAD en-US International Linguistics Research 2576-2974 <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.<br>This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).</p> Earning the Keys to the Kingdom: Students’ Language Awareness, Identity and Representations of English-Speaking Others https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ilr/article/view/923 <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">The present linguistic reality involves finding ways of communication in the globalized environment, where people move all around the world in order to find work, learn, or share experiences. One issue arising from English language teaching is that it has mainly overlooked teaching culture across the curriculum, thus allowing the increase of negative attitudes and stereotypes.</span></p> <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">This paper is set out to determine to what extent English language teaching (ELT) materials demonstrate the traits of the English-speaking Other, it what ways children are accessing the target ‘Kingdom’, and which are the best teaching strategies to provide them with the keys to the target world. Anchoring our perspective in CLIL and the 4 Cs, this study looks at ways of developing cutting-edge syllabi to develop intercultural awareness and preventing stereotypes. Findings from the application of the syllabi and resulting from an analysis of the cultural content of two internationally distributed ELT textbooks are reported. The present research put in evidence that cultural aspects are practically absent from the analyzed textbooks, thus lacking a key dimension in English Language Teaching and Education. Therefore, some recommendations for future textbook writers and EFL classroom practice are suggested.</span></p> Carmen Manuela Pereira Carneiro Lucas ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-07-26 2021-07-26 4 3 p1 p1 10.30560/ilr.v4n3p1 A Pragma-Stylistic Study of Implicature in Shakespeare's Hamlet and Twelfth Night https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ilr/article/view/949 <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">Implicature is commonly defined as the dissimilarity between what is said and what is meant. The variance lies between the conspicuous meaning of written and spoken words and the meaning that lies beneath what is said. This study aims at analyzing and discussing Shakespeare's <em>Hamlet </em>and <em>Twelfth Night</em> in terms of generalized and particularized conversational and conventional implicature. The model used in the analysis is coined from a variety of pragmatic theories, implicature, Grice's maxims, irony, indirect speech acts, context, and hedges. It is hypothesized that the number of implicature cases in Twelfth Night is bigger than that in Hamlet, generation of implicatures by the characters in the two plays is highly determined by social factors, Hamlet and Cesario use implicature more than other characters, the most used implicature is the particularized one, the purpose of using implicatures differs in the plays, implicature is generated from flouting Grice's maxims and most implicatures are made by violating the relation maxim. The study concludes that the implications in <em>Hamlet </em>are more than those in <em>Twelfth Night</em>, that Shakespeare uses two implicatures generalized and particularized<em>, </em>and that Implicature in <em>Hamlet </em>and<em> Twelfth Night </em>is generated mostly by violating the maxims of quality. As for the least flouted maxim in the two plays is the maxim of quantity.</span></p> Mohammed Jasim Betti Noor Sattar Khalaf ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-02 2021-09-02 4 3 p12 p12 10.30560/ilr.v4n3p12 The Effect of Gender on the Bilingual and Bicultural Identity of the Iraqi EFL Learners' Recognition and Production of Request https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ilr/article/view/950 <p>This study examines the effect of gender on students' bilingual and bicultural identity in their recognition and production of request is studied. This means that it investigates to what extent the learners’ mother tongue and culture influence their recognition and production of request in the EFL and the effect of gender on such an identity. The study aims at exploring and identifying the linguistic patterns of request in English used by Iraqi EFL learners, those patterns of request transferred from Iraqi EFL learners’ mother tongue, and the Iraqi EFL learners’ cultural patterns and cultural realization of request transferred from Arabic culture into the EFL. Some hypotheses of the study state that there is a bilingual and cultural identity in using request by Iraqi EFL learners, females are better than males in request perception and production and they are worse in Arabic monolingualism and monoculturalism, students are better in English monolingualism and monoculturalism than in the other request features, students’ English monolingual and monocultural identity is more apparent in request perception than in production.</p> <p>To validate or refute its hypotheses, a test comprising recognition and production has been constructed and applied to fifty Iraqi EFL learners at fourth year, Department of English, College of Education for Humanities, University of Thi-Qar at the academic year (2020-2021). After data analysis, some conclusions are arrived at.</p> <p>The study concludes that Iraqi EFL learners are pragmatically incompetent and they have a bilingual and bicultural identity because of their mother tongue and culture interference.</p> Mohammed Jasim Betti Zainab Kadhim Hashim ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-02 2021-09-02 4 3 p32 p32 10.30560/ilr.v4n3p32 The Pragmatics of Blackmail in English and Iraqi-Arabic https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ilr/article/view/956 <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">Verbal offences are language crimes that are committed by mere utterances of certain words or expressions whether they are accompanied by physical acts or not. One of those crimes is blackmail. This crime has been studied and compared legally but its linguistic aspect has not been given much attention. This study tries to emphasize this crime pragmatically and contrastively in English and Arabic. No study has shed light on such aspects concerning the study under investigation. The researcher has not found any previous related study to get a benefit from about this topic. There is an attempt to achieve the following aim which is shedding light on the similarities and differences in strategies of blackmail between English and Arabic in terms of speech act, implicature and impoliteness theories. The present study hypothesizes the following: English and Arabic are different from each other in expressing blackmail in terms of speech act theory, implicature and impoliteness. To support or refute the hypothesis of the study, data consisting of 20 complaints in English and Arabic were collected from Courts of Appeal in Iraq, Britain and the United States. They are analyzed in terms of an eclectic model. The results arrived at are: English and Arabic are different in blackmail in terms of the locutionary acts and illocutionary acts. Concerning impoliteness, the same strategies are applied to the verbal offence in both languages. As far as implicature is concerned, the two languages are different in blackmail.</span></p> Zainab Kadim Igaab ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-18 2021-09-18 4 3 p72 p72 10.30560/ilr.v4n3p72 A Study of Customer Service Agent’s Pragmatic Identity Construction in Complaint Responses https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ilr/article/view/915 <p>Positioned within rapport management theory proposed by Spencer-Oatey, this article investigates the customer service agent’s pragmatic identity construction in complaint response calls. Drawing on data of 42 complaint handling recordings from the customer care center of a Chinese airline company, this study tries to address these three research questions: 1) What types of pragmatic identities do the customer service agents construct in complaint response calls? 2) How are these pragmatic identities constructed through rapport management strategies? 3) What interpersonal functions do these pragmatic identities perform? By adopting a qualitative research method, this study has found that the agents mainly construct three default identities and one deviational identity in complaint response calls by employing nine rapport management strategies from four rapport management domains. These different pragmatic identities mainly perform three kinds of interpersonal functions: support face needs, support sociality rights and obligations, and support interactional goals. The findings further validates the feasibility of rapport management theory in the study of identity construction, and provides new ideas for future study on pragmatic identity construction in institutional communications.</p> Cheng Huang Ping Liu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-26 2021-09-26 4 3 p89 p89 10.30560/ilr.v4n3p89