International Linguistics Research <p>International Linguistics Research (ILR) is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal published by <span lang="EN-US">IDEAS SPREAD INC</span>. The journal encourages submission in but not limited to subjects of linguistics, including theoretical linguistics, descriptive linguistics and applied linguistics. In addition to the broad area of language research, the creative approaches to language learning and teaching are also involved, leading linguistics to a higher level of cognitive development. The linguistic research contributes to cooperation of people groups throughout the world. Abundant and professional resources of linguistics are needed to meet a wide and infinitely varied range of communicative goals. From this perspective, the journal aims to improve the communicative power of the language and consolidate the national language communicative tool available to speakers. International Linguistics Research (ILR) also provides the opportunities for sharing the resources among members of the academic community. <br>The journal is published in both print and online versions. The online version is free access and download.</p> IDEAS SPREAD en-US International Linguistics Research 2576-2974 <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.<br>This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (</p> Is Grammar Still Important Learning the English Language on Tertiary Level? The Analysis of Students’ Attitude <p>Lecturers of Vytautas Magnus University Institute of Foreign Languages have noticed that students’ English grammar comprehension as well as their interest and motivation for learning it have dropped significantly. It was decided to carry out the research and find the answers to the topical questions. Do students thoroughly understand the importance of grammar in language acquisition context? What are the factors predisposing the diminishing value of grammar? What is the students’ insight into the grammar teaching/ learning process in level C1? The questionnaire was compiled and on the basis of a comparative – quantitative method the conclusions were drawn that students do not think that grammar plays an important role in learning the English language, they suppose that their grammar competence is sufficient to be fluent in English, thus, there is no need to continue learning grammar in level C1. If we do not make an attempt to solve this problem, it might lead to a dangerous outcome- the level of the English language proficiency may fall down drastically.</p> Ramunė Vitalija Ilgūnaitienė ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 4 2 p1 p1 10.30560/ilr.v4n2p1 The Role of Native Weaknesses and Cultural Conflicts in Escalating Colonial Supremacy in the Igbo Society, as Perceived in Arrow of God by Chinua Achebe <p>The colonial invaders and their repressive means of governance in Africa were not the only reasons that could be solely held accountable for the fall of indigenous African society during the colonial invasion. Native weaknesses, socio-cultural conflicts and hegemony were equally responsible for the falling apart of native social setups when confronted with colonial alternatives. Native people had had their own covert religious and cultural limitations long before the colonizers entered their soil. The colonial powers cleverly used such inherent societal flaws of African people as excuses to impose European religion and traditions on them. Chinua Achebe does not blindly idealize native African traditions in his writings. He frequently narrates his doubts on flawed socio-cultural practices and moral dualities in the native society, too. This paper is an attempt to explore how innate weaknesses of native Igbo people, socio-cultural conflicts and domination in the native society have also made it easier for the colonial administration to prolong their supremacy in the Igbo land, as depicted in Arrow of God by Chinua Achebe. It also elaborates how Ezeulu, the chief priest of god Ulu, falls from dominance in his society because of his intent to execute personal desires which jeopardize his societal role in the Igbo land.</p> Momtajul Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-27 2021-04-27 4 2 p19 p19 10.30560/ilr.v4n2p19 Investigating Iraqi EFL Secondary School Students' Perceptions towards Using Mobile Language Learning Technique <p>Changes in mobile technologies, developments in information technologies and telecommunication, computers programs and expansion of mobile market, likewise have inspired people to make use of these “anytime” and “anywhere” technologies in second language teaching. Use of mobile devices in language teaching has been the focus of language learning studies since language learning necessitates interaction and autonomy which are the key concepts in mobile assisted language learning for learners.</p> <p>The research aims at investigating Iraqi EFL secondary school students' perceptions towards using mobile language learning technique.</p> <p>To achieve the aim of the present research, a sample of 40 secondary school students were chosen randomly from many schools .</p> <p>To fulfill the aim of the study, the questionnaire of students consists of (17) items. After the analysis of the data, the findings indicated that the vast majority of students had had used their mobile phones to study English. Also, they expressed their welcome towards using this technology to study English in the future.</p> <p>It is recommended to promote the use of mobile learning devices, and encourage students to use mobile as a means of learning and teaching English language in various stages of education.</p> Nisreen Kadhim Khudhair ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-07 2021-05-07 4 2 p25 p25 10.30560/ilr.v4n2p25 Defamation in English and Arabic: A Pragmatic Contrastive Study <p>Defamation is one of the verbal offences in which the plaintiff is accused of a certain wrongful act by one of the ways of publicity. If that wrongful act is proved, then the accused will be punished by law or lowered by his/her home people. Defamation is surely accusing another person of a wrongful act . Accusing can be done by any spoken or written ways whether truthful or doubtful. The purpose beyond those ways is to make those accusations about the victim true in the people's mind even if they are temporarily made. The aim of this study is to elucidate if there is a similarity or a difference between English and Arabic in terms of defamation. It has been hypothesized that both languages are different from each other in terms of the topic under investigation. This study arrives at: In terms of defamation, English and Arabic are similar to each other in having speech acts, grammatical referencing, conveyed meaning, malicious meaning, and discourse structure and framing with intentionality. English defamation cases include speech acts more than Arabic defamation ones.</p> Basim Yahya Jasim Algburi Zainab Kadim Igaab ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-12 2021-05-12 4 2 p31 p31 10.30560/ilr.v4n2p31 Language Evaluation in Developmental Language Disorder: Celf 4 vs Celf 5 <p>The CELF assessment test is one of the tools most used today for the differential diagnosis of Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) because it allows obtaining a lingüistic level with different areas. The recent update of the test offers new scales especially in Spanish speakers. The objective of this study was to analyze the language level of people with DLD with the CELF 4 and CELF 5 tests to verify the possible differences that exist between both tests. The sample consisted of 26 children and adolescents with a diagnosis of TDL between 6 and 15 years old who were evaluated with both tests. The results obtained indicate that, in general, the scores are lower when they are evaluated with the CELF 5 test, with significant differences in Core Language, Receptive Language and Expressive Language. These data lead us to consider the CELF test as an essential tool in the diagnosis of DLD but also to take into account a complementary evaluation that allows obtaining a complete linguistic profile as a starting point for the intervention.</p> Esther Moraleda Sepulveda Patricia López Resa Noelia Pulido García ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-24 2021-05-24 4 2 p46 p46 10.30560/ilr.v4n2p46 Human Indifference Towards Suffering of Others Depicted in 'Morning at the Window' by Yeats & 'Musee des Art' by Auden <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">The current study has sought to examine human suffering as depicted in 'Morning at the Window', by W.B. Yeats and 'Musee des Beaux Art', by W. H. Auden. It has also attempted to investigate how humans are incurious and unenthusiastic to man's serious problems and disasters. In order to achieve the aims of this study, the two poems under investigation were, quantitatively, analyzed. The expressions, in the two poems, which indicate that human are indifferent and lukewarm to human serious problems and disasters; were focused and investigated. The findings of the study showed that the poems, investigated in this study, shed light on human suffering. They also displayed that humans are incurious and unenthusiastic to man serious problems and disasters. Moreover, they show an insensitive and cruel disregard for others. The study recommends that future researches and studies should be conducted on other forms of literary genres other than poetry. Besides, examining other social issues that of great importance to humanity, for literature is regarded as the mirror which reflects human life in all its aspects. </span></p> Mohamed Jabraddar Mahil Abdallah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 4 2 p55 p55 10.30560/ilr.v4n2p55 Announcement of Retraction <p>The editorial board announced this article has been retracted on June 17, 2021.</p> <p>If you have any further question, please contact us at:</p> Sarah Lane ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-23 2021-04-23 4 2 p10 p10 10.30560/ilr.v4n2p10