Health Outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa Countries: An Analysis of Key Determinants

  • Timothy Oladayo Popoola Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria
Keywords: Health, Human Capita, SSA, Panel Data Estimation


The poor health outcomes (low longevity and high mortalities) in developing countries has been great concern for citizens and policy makers alike. Although, numerous studies have focus on socio-economic drivers (like education, age of mothers, income levels, and poverty) of health outcomes in developing nations; however, the same is not true for important exogenous determinants. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of access to clean drinkable water, sanitation, fertility rate, prevalence of HIV/AIDS, health financing, and child immunization on health outcomes in sub-Sahara African (SSA) region. To achieve this, the study explored Pooled OLS, Fixed and Random Effects covering 46 countries in the region from 2000 to 2015. The findings reveal that population health outcomes - as measured by infant and under-five mortalities rates are related negatively with increase public health financing, timely children immunization, quality drinkable water supply, but directly associated with higher fertility rate, and HIV prevalence. For life expectancy at birth, increase government health spending, timely children immunization, and quality drinkable water supply are positively predicted, while relate inversely with higher fertility rate, and HIV prevalence. The findings therefore suggest that for SSA countries to achieve the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal three of ensuring healthy lives before 2030; emphasis should on increasing public health financing, and provision of infrastructural facilities like clean water supply and sanitation. Again, greater attention should be on enhancing child immunization, reducing fertility rates and HIV prevalence in the region.

Framework for Health Outcomes in SSA Region