Modern Health Science 2021-01-28T04:44:06+08:00 Lacy Brown Open Journal Systems <p>Modern Health Science (MHS) is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal, published by IDEAS SPREAD INC. It publishes original research, applied, and educational articles in all areas of health science. It provides an academic platform for professionals and researchers to contribute innovative work in the field.<br>Authors are encouraged to submit complete, unpublished, original works that are not under review in any other journals.<br>The journal is published in both print and online versions. The online version is free access and download.</p> Application of Dose Area Product (DAP) to Estimate Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) in Pediatric Chest X-Rays 2021-01-28T04:44:06+08:00 Roya Davoodi Mohammad-Reza Eydian Hessein Karampour Mahdi Nassarpour Reza Rezazadeh-Farokh Asma Maraei Mohammad Chavideh <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Given the high radiation tissue sensitivity of pediatric patients, it is necessary to monitor their received dose to optimize radiation protection. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the entrance surface dose (ESD) in pediatric patients undergoing a chest X-ray at the main hospital of Dezful, Iran. The second aim was to compare our results with the established dose reference levels (DRLs).</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The studied population included 204 pediatric patients less than 15 years who were referred to as chest X-ray. A calibrated dose area product meter (DAP-meter) with permanent installation on the X-ray unit was used to radiation dose measurements. For each patient, the demographic data, exposure parameters and the dose read by DAP-meter were recorded and ESD was calculated using a standard mathematical formula.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The average value of ESD was 119 μGy in patients less than 15 years. This value was 51.3, 122.3, 131.5 and 171.2 μGy for the age groups for less than 1 year, 1 to 5 years, 5 to 10 years and 10 to 15 years, respectively. A statistically significant difference was seen between ESD values ​​in different age groups (P&lt;0.001), whereas no statistical difference was seen between ESD values in ​ girls and boys (P =0.993).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Pediatric patients in hospital investigated (except age group less than 1 year) are subjected to unnecessary radiation exposure, especially due to the use of non-optimize X-ray protocols.</p> 2020-08-17T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Corneal Reflectance in Sjögren's Syndrome Dry Eye 2021-01-28T04:44:04+08:00 Sandro Sbordone Adele Ragucci Gennarfrancesco Iaccarino Domenico de Robertis Giovan Battista Scazzi Michele Lanza <p class="text"><strong><span lang="EN-US">Introduction</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">: To measure corneal layers’ light reflectance (LR) in eyes affected by dry eye disease caused by Sjögren's syndrome (SSDE) with corneal confocal microscopy (IVCM) and to study the correlations with tear film tests. </span></p> <p class="text"><strong><span lang="EN-US">Materials and Methods</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">: Thirty-six patients affected by SSDE and 36 healthy subjects (HS) were enrolled in this retrospective study, participants of both groups were age and sex matched. Each study participants had a complete eye visit and break up time (BUT), Schirmer test, with and without stimulation, at the end of the visit an IVCM scan was performed. LR measured by IVCM at Bowman membrane (BM) level and at 50 µm, at 100 µm and at 200 µm deeper was compared in the two groups of participants. The correlations between LR measurements and tear film test results were investigated. </span></p> <p class="text"><strong><span lang="EN-US">Results</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">: In SSDE eyes, LR was significantly higher (p&lt;0.001) in SSDE patients at BM level (+14.43 ± 3.27 LRU) and also in the other levels evaluated, compared with HP. Good correlations were observed between LR values at BM and Schirmer test ones with (r = -0.82) and without (r= -0.81) stimulation and BUT (r= 0.80) in SSDE eyes. Correlations values were Adecreasing the deeper corneal layers. </span></p> <p class="text"><strong><span lang="EN-US">Conclusion</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">: Even if need to be verified in further studies with a larger population, results obtained in this study suggest that IVCM could be an interesting and effective tool in evaluating the SSDE patients and it could be adopted by physicians’ community because it seems very promising.</span></p> 2020-11-02T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Formulation and Quality Optimization of Effervescent Tablet of Glipizide: An Approach to Comfort Anti-Diabetic Medication 2021-01-28T04:44:02+08:00 Aklima Aklima Prodip Kumar Baral Mohammad Tohidul Amin Tariqul Islam Emon Mohammad Salim Hossain <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US" style="background: white;">The present study is targeted to formulate and prepare effervescent tablets of Glipizide to provide more elegancy, comfortability, and improved pharmacokinetics in diabetic treatment than the conventional dosage. Three formulations (F1, F2, and F3) of the effervescent tablet of Glipizide (5mg) were formulated with different amounts and ratios of excipients. </span><span lang="EN-US">By wet granulation technique, 60 tablets for every formulation were prepared with a weight of 700mg per tablet. Then, the features of both granules and tablets were evaluated by published methods. The angle of repose, Hausner ratio, Carr's index, Loss on drying (LOD), and Moisture Content (MC) used to measure granules property successfully proved right follow ability and compressibility. In contrast, physical and drug content related investigation failed to determine the perfectness of all three formulations. Friability on the formulations was around 0.70%, indicating the expected USP limit of friability (0.5 to 1%). The mean disintegration time of the formulations was from 95s to 105s. The tablet potency assay found 95.20% for F1<sub>, </sub>88.80% for F2<sub>, </sub>and 97.40% for F3<sub>. </sub>The dissolution pattern of the drug followed a linear relationship with time. After one and a half hours, the highest amount of 59.20% cumulative dissolution was determined for F3 that revealed its strategic improvement of the drug solubility. As <span style="background: white;">Glipizide is a poorly water-soluble drug, the effervescent tablet might mitigate disintegration and dissolution-related limitations and, consequently, enhance the drug's bioavailability.</span></span></p> 2020-12-07T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Corneal Distortion and Corneal Morphological Parameters in Naïve Eyes Analyzed with a Scheimpflug Camera 2021-01-28T04:44:00+08:00 Sandro Sbrodone Adele Ragucci Gennarfrancesco Iaccarino Domenico de Robertis Giovan Battista Scazzi Michele Lanza <p><strong>Background: </strong>The study of the corneal biomechanical properties (CBP) is gaining always more interest, thanks to the applications to refractive surgery and to the overall management of several corneal diseases.</p> <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: To analyze the eventual relationships between corneal distortion and morphologic features in healthy subjects.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: one eye of one hundred and fifty-two healthy participants, 87 women and 65 men, aging from 23 to 65 years old, were evaluated in this study. Every eye underwent a complete clinical examination, that included also a tomographic scan using Pentacam HR (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany) and a biomechanical evaluation using Corvis ST (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany). Linear regressions among refractive defect, corneal volume (CV), anterior corneal curvature and central corneal thickness (CCT) vs corneal biomechanical features provided by Corvis ST have been ran using SPSS software version 18.0.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Corneal distortion factors showed a low correlation both with corneal morphological parameters and with refractive defect. No significant correlations (p&gt; 0.01) were found among morphologic and biomechanical features evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong>: results observed in this study could help in recognize the healthy range of values of CBP parameters provided by CST. This information could be very useful in many ophthalmology topics such as the accurate IOP measurement, the early diagnosis of corneal degenerations, such as keratoconous, and the screening of subject undergoing refractive surgery.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: even if data of this study need to be confirmed in further ones with larger populations, results here observed suggest that Corvis ST is a device providing an evaluation of corneal distortion not influenced by morphological corneal factors. This information could help in better screening and managing the diseased corneas.</p> 2020-12-30T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##