Modern Health Science 2019-05-19T06:03:43+08:00 Lacy Brown Open Journal Systems <p>Modern Health Science (MHS) is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal, published by IDEAS SPREAD INC. It publishes original research, applied, and educational articles in all areas of health science. It provides an academic platform for professionals and researchers to contribute innovative work in the field.<br>Authors are encouraged to submit complete, unpublished, original works that are not under review in any other journals.<br>The journal is published in both print and online versions. The online version is free access and download.</p> Epstein Barr Virus and Atrial Fibrillation 2019-05-19T06:03:43+08:00 Ilija Barukcic <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Atrial fibrillation (AF) is very frequent and clinically significant arrhythmia. The incidence of atrial fibrillation is continuously rising. Meanwhile several risk factors for AF development have been identified but the etiology is not cleared.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A systematic review and re-analysis of studies which investigated the relationship between AF and some risk factors was conducted. The method of the conditio sine qua non relationship, the method of the conditio per quam relationship, the method of the exclusion relationship and the mathematical formula of the causal relationship k were used to proof the hypothesis. Significance was indicated by a p-value of less than 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The studies analyzed were able to provide direct and indirect evidence that AF is caused by a process of inflammation while a direct identification of the factor causing AF was not possible. Still, it appears to be very probable that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the cause of AF.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Atrial fibrillation (AF) appears to be caused by an EBV inflammatory process.</p> 2019-01-30T10:17:34+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analysis of Knowledge of Menstruation, Hygiene Practices, and Perceptions in Adolescent Girls in India 2019-05-19T06:03:42+08:00 Nicole Solvig Leeberk Raja Carolin Elizabeth George Bethesda O'Connell Priya Gangadharan Gift Norman <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Unsafe water, poor sanitation and inadequate hygiene affects many communities around the world. Without access to clean water, proper waste management, or knowledge of basic hygiene practices, the risk for disease is greatly increased. The menstrual cycle can be hard to manage without access to clean products. Additionally, poor knowledge can perpetuate unhygienic practices. Girls are often not taught about menstruation before it occurs leaving them with feelings of fear, disgust, and uncertainty.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This paper analyzes data from adolescent girls in both rural and urban communities in India concerning their knowledge, perceptions, and hygiene practices regarding menstruation. Results from pre and posttests indicate change in knowledge following an educational intervention.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The knowledge and practices of adolescent Indian girls regarding menstrual hygiene were greatly lacking. In fact, 53.8% of girls did not know anything about menstruation prior to their first period. Overall, knowledge and practices improved significantly after the educational intervention.</p> <p><strong>Discussion and Conclusion: </strong>Education of girls on menstrual hygiene management is effective. The results of this study are generally consistent with other literature. Further educational and environmental interventions as well as research are needed.</p> 2019-04-30T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Index of Unfairness 2019-05-19T06:03:40+08:00 Ilija Barukcic <p><strong>Objective.</strong> Objective scientific knowledge for many authors more valuable than true subjective belief is determined by research on primary data but a renewed analysis of already recorded or published data is common too. Ever since, an appropriate experimental or study design is an important and often a seriously underappreciated aspect of the informativeness and the scientific value of any (medical) study. The significance of study design for the reliability of the conclusions drawn and the ability to generalize the results from the sample investigated for the whole population cannot be underestimated. In contrast to an inappropriate statistical evaluation of a medical study, it is difficult to correct errors in study design after the study has been completed. Various mathematical aspects of study design are discussed in this article.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> In assessing the significance of a fair study design of a medical study, important measures of publication bias are introduced. Methods of data or publication bias analysis in different types of studies are illustrated through examples with fictive data. Formal mathematical requirements of a fair study design which can and should be fulfilled carefully with regard to the planning or evaluation of medical research are developed.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> Various especially mathematical aspects of a fair study design are discussed in this article in detail. Depending on the particular question being asked, mathematical methods are developed which allow us to recognize data which are self-contradictory and to exclude these data from systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses. As a result, different individual studies can be summed up and evaluated with a higher degree of certainty.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> This article is intended to give the reader guidance in evaluating the design of studies in medical research even ex post which should enable the reader to categorize medical studies better and to assess their scientific quality more accurately.</p> 2019-04-30T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##