Modern Health Science <p>Modern Health Science (MHS) is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal, published by IDEAS SPREAD INC. It publishes original research, applied, and educational articles in all areas of health science. It provides an academic platform for professionals and researchers to contribute innovative work in the field.<br>Authors are encouraged to submit complete, unpublished, original works that are not under review in any other journals.<br>The journal is published in both print and online versions. The online version is free access and download.</p> IDEAS SPREAD INC en-US Modern Health Science 2576-7291 <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.<br>This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (</p> Epstein Barr Virus and Atrial Fibrillation <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Atrial fibrillation (AF) is very frequent and clinically significant arrhythmia. The incidence of atrial fibrillation is continuously rising. Meanwhile several risk factors for AF development have been identified but the etiology is not cleared.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A systematic review and re-analysis of studies which investigated the relationship between AF and some risk factors was conducted. The method of the conditio sine qua non relationship, the method of the conditio per quam relationship, the method of the exclusion relationship and the mathematical formula of the causal relationship k were used to proof the hypothesis. Significance was indicated by a p-value of less than 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The studies analyzed were able to provide direct and indirect evidence that AF is caused by a process of inflammation while a direct identification of the factor causing AF was not possible. Still, it appears to be very probable that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the cause of AF.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Atrial fibrillation (AF) appears to be caused by an EBV inflammatory process.</p> Ilija Barukcic ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-30 2019-01-30 2 1 p1 p1 10.30560/mhs.v2n1p1 Analysis of Knowledge of Menstruation, Hygiene Practices, and Perceptions in Adolescent Girls in India <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Unsafe water, poor sanitation and inadequate hygiene affects many communities around the world. Without access to clean water, proper waste management, or knowledge of basic hygiene practices, the risk for disease is greatly increased. The menstrual cycle can be hard to manage without access to clean products. Additionally, poor knowledge can perpetuate unhygienic practices. Girls are often not taught about menstruation before it occurs leaving them with feelings of fear, disgust, and uncertainty.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This paper analyzes data from adolescent girls in both rural and urban communities in India concerning their knowledge, perceptions, and hygiene practices regarding menstruation. Results from pre and posttests indicate change in knowledge following an educational intervention.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The knowledge and practices of adolescent Indian girls regarding menstrual hygiene were greatly lacking. In fact, 53.8% of girls did not know anything about menstruation prior to their first period. Overall, knowledge and practices improved significantly after the educational intervention.</p> <p><strong>Discussion and Conclusion: </strong>Education of girls on menstrual hygiene management is effective. The results of this study are generally consistent with other literature. Further educational and environmental interventions as well as research are needed.</p> Nicole Solvig Leeberk Raja Carolin Elizabeth George Bethesda O'Connell Priya Gangadharan Gift Norman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-30 2019-04-30 2 1 p16 p16 10.30560/mhs.v2n1p16 Index of Unfairness <p><strong>Objective.</strong> Objective scientific knowledge for many authors more valuable than true subjective belief is determined by research on primary data but a renewed analysis of already recorded or published data is common too. Ever since, an appropriate experimental or study design is an important and often a seriously underappreciated aspect of the informativeness and the scientific value of any (medical) study. The significance of study design for the reliability of the conclusions drawn and the ability to generalize the results from the sample investigated for the whole population cannot be underestimated. In contrast to an inappropriate statistical evaluation of a medical study, it is difficult to correct errors in study design after the study has been completed. Various mathematical aspects of study design are discussed in this article.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> In assessing the significance of a fair study design of a medical study, important measures of publication bias are introduced. Methods of data or publication bias analysis in different types of studies are illustrated through examples with fictive data. Formal mathematical requirements of a fair study design which can and should be fulfilled carefully with regard to the planning or evaluation of medical research are developed.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> Various especially mathematical aspects of a fair study design are discussed in this article in detail. Depending on the particular question being asked, mathematical methods are developed which allow us to recognize data which are self-contradictory and to exclude these data from systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses. As a result, different individual studies can be summed up and evaluated with a higher degree of certainty.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> This article is intended to give the reader guidance in evaluating the design of studies in medical research even ex post which should enable the reader to categorize medical studies better and to assess their scientific quality more accurately.</p> Ilija Barukcic ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-30 2019-04-30 2 1 p22 p22 10.30560/mhs.v2n1p22 Screening, Sensitivity, Specificity, and So Forth: A Second, Somewhat Skeptical, Sequel <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">This article is concerned with the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and other metrics associated with screening tests. It has direct origins in two previous articles. In this third article, the author of the first article writes about topics and issues that were addressed only minimally in his previous article and expands on topics raised by authors of the second article. In particular, attention is turned to wording and terminology that can be idiosyncratic and confusing with regard to screening versus diagnosis as well as to issues associated with reference (“gold”) standards and screening tests, and to the importance of cutpoints and prevalence in relation to metrics associated with screening tests. The primary aims are to help readers attain clarity about topics that they might have felt unsure about; gain reassurance about conceptual difficulties in the field that, once recognized for what they are, can become less problematic because it is possible to be confident about not being confident; and, where appropriate, adopt an appropriately skeptical attitude about screening tests and their associated metrics. Examples are drawn from the use of ankle–brachial and toe–brachial indices for identifying peripheral artery disease, although wider applicability is intended.</span></p> Robert Trevethan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-13 2019-06-13 2 1 p60 p60 10.30560/mhs.v2n1p60 Reviewer Acknowledgements for Modern Health Science, Vol. 2, No. 2 <p><em>Modern Health Science</em> wishes to acknowledge the following individuals for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Their help and contributions in maintaining the quality of the journal is greatly appreciated.</p> <p><em>Modern Health Science</em> is recruiting reviewers for the journal. If you are interested in becoming a reviewer, we welcome you to join us. Please find the application form and details at and e-mail the completed application form to</p> <p><strong>Reviewers for Volume 2, Number 2</strong></p> <p>Abdulbari Bener, Istanbul University, Turkey</p> <p>France Ncube, Bindura University of Science Education, Zimbabwe</p> <p>Maria Jocelyn B. Natividad, Lyceum of the Philippines University, Philippines</p> <p>Md Illias Kanchan Sk, International Institute for Population Sciences, India</p> <p>Melesse Belayneh, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia</p> <p>Mohanad Ali Albayyaa, Houston Eye Associates, United States</p> <p>Seyyed Mohammad Javad Mirlohi, Islamic Azad University, Iran</p> Lacy Brown ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-01 2019-07-01 2 1 p85 p85