Modern Health Science https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/mhs <p>Modern Health Science (MHS) is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal, published by IDEAS SPREAD INC. It publishes original research, applied, and educational articles in all areas of health science. It provides an academic platform for professionals and researchers to contribute innovative work in the field.<br>Authors are encouraged to submit complete, unpublished, original works that are not under review in any other journals.<br>The journal is published in both print and online versions. The online version is free access and download.</p> IDEAS SPREAD INC en-US Modern Health Science 2576-7291 <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.<br>This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).</p> Gastric Cancer and Epstein-Barr Virus Infection https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/mhs/article/view/160 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has an important role in the oncogenesis of several malignant diseases. Reports even demonstrated the presence of Epstein-Barr virus in gastric carcinoma (GC). However, the pathogenic role of EBV in GC is uncertain. The present investigation was carried out to investigate a possible causal relationship between GC and EBV.</p> <p><strong>Statistical Analysis:</strong> The method of the <em>conditio sine qua non</em> relationship was used to proof the hypothesis whether gastric cancer is a necessary condition (a conditio sine qua non) of the presence of EBV in human gastric tissues. In other words <em>without</em> GC <em>no</em> EBV in human stomach. The mathematical formula of the causal relationship k was used to proof the hypothesis, whether there is a cause effect relationship between gastric cancer and EBV. Significance was indicated by a p-value (two sided) of less than 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In toto 26 ISH based studies with a sample size of N = 11860 were re-analyzed. All the studies analyzed support the null-hypothesis <em>without</em> GC <em>no</em> EBV positivity in human stomach. In other words, gastric cancer itself is a conditio sine qua non of EBV positivity in stomach tissues while the cause effect relationship between gastric cancer and EBV was highly significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Epstein-Barr virus is neither a cause, nor the cause of human gastric cancer.</p> Ilija Barukčić ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-08-29 2018-08-29 1 2 p1 p1 10.30560/mhs.v1n2p1 Human Cytomegalovirus is the Cause of Glioblastoma Multiforme https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/mhs/article/view/152 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The relationship between Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is investigated.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A systematic review and re-analysis of some impressive key studies was conducted aimed to answer the following question. Is there a cause-effect relationship between HCMV and GBM? The method of the conditio sine qua non relationship was used to proof the hypothesis whether the presence of HCMV guarantees the presence of GBM. In other words, <em>without</em> HCMV <em>no</em> GBM. The mathematical formula of the causal relationship k was used to proof the hypothesis, whether there is a cause-effect relationship between HCMV and GBM. Significance was indicated by a p-value of less than 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The studies analysed were able to provide strict evidence that HCMV is a necessary condition (a conditio sine qua non) of GBM. Furthermore, the cause-effect relationship between HCMV and GBM (k ~ + 0.8608, p value &lt; 0.0001) was highly significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Without a human cytomegalovirus infection no glioblastoma multiforme. Human cytomegalovirus is the cause of glioblastoma multiforme.</p> Ilija Barukčić ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-09-19 2018-09-19 1 2 p19 p19 10.30560/mhs.v1n2p19 Infective Endocarditis by Rare Organism Granulicatella Adiacens https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/mhs/article/view/164 <p>Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening infection of the cardiac valves especially in patients with preexisted valvular disease. Having a rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease, prosthetic valves or previous episodes of IE are some of the traditional risk factors for infective endocarditis (Hoen &amp; Duval, 2013).</p> <p>Although most cases were reported by streptococci especially streptococcus viridans, which is one of the commensal bacteria isolated from the mouth, some of the cases of IE can be caused by fastidious extracellular bacteria such as Abiotrophia, HACEK group bacteria, Clostridium, Brucella, Legionella, Mycobacterium, and Bartonella spp. These organisms need supplemented media, prolonged incubation time, and special culture conditions to grow and be isolated.</p> <p>Abiotrophia was reclassified in a new genus Granulicatella, as <em>Granulicatella adiacens, balaenopterae, elegans and</em> <em>G. para adiacens. </em>The genus Abiotrophia consists of only one species -A.defectiva.</p> Ali Hamoudi Dana Vais Vian Taqi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-03 2018-12-03 1 2 p37 p37 10.30560/mhs.v1n2p37 Hepatotoxicity and Histological Evaluation of Aqueous and Methanolic Leaf Extracts of Thaumatococcus Daniellii and Alchornea Cordifolia in Wistar Rat Models https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/mhs/article/view/229 <p>This study was carried out to ascertain the hepatotoxic potential of <em>T.daniellii</em> (T.d) and <em>A. cordifolia</em> (A.c). Investigations were conducted using standard methods. Oral administration of 200mg/kg aqueous leaf extracts of <em>T.daniellii</em> caused a non-significant increase in the activity of ALT (5.43±0.60IU/L), AST (16.93±0.26 IU/L) and ALP (160.70±1.04 IU/L) compared to the values recorded on the normal control (group I) ALT (3.84±0.16 IU/L), AST (14.19±0.52 IU/L) and ALP (157.26±0.64 IU/L). Group III administered with 200mg/kg methanolic leaf extract of <em>T. daniellii</em> manifested a significant elevation in the activity of ALT (13.15±0.89 IU/L), AST (22.84±0.38 IU/L) and ALP (170.40±0.44 IU/L) compared to the normal control. Similarly, groups IV and V which were orally administered with 200mg/kg aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of <em>A. cordifolia </em>showed significant increase in the activity of ALT (6.32±0.33U/L), AST (17.70±0.030U/L) and ALP (161.13±0.09U/L) and ALT (7.55±0.59U/L), AST (19.35±0.26U/L) and ALP (165.38±0.35U/L) respectively compared to the values recorded on the control (group I). In conclusion, drug development protocols involving <em>T. daniellii </em>leaf should preferably use water as an ideal solvent. On the other hand, the hepatotoxicity associated with both aqueous and methanolic extracts of <em>A. cordifolia</em> could imply the presence of hepatotoxins in the leaf of the said plant.</p> Okafor I. J. Nweke E. O. Ewa O. ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-01-04 2019-01-04 1 2 p42 p42 10.30560/mhs.v1n2p42