Evaluation of Thermal Comfort in the Traditional Bourgeoisie Houses in Beirut

  • Jad Hammoud Faculty of Fine arts and Architecture, Lebanese University. Hadath Campus, Branch I, Beirut, Lebanon
  • Elise Abi Rached Faculty of Fine arts and Architecture, Lebanese University. Furn El Chebbek, Branch II, Beirut, Lebanon
Keywords: thermal performance, comfort assessment, monitoring, old buildings


The increasing of energy demands has considerably increased the requirements for new and traditional buildings in different climate zones. Unprecedented heat waves have increased climate temperature, in particular, in moderate climate zones such as Lebanon. In Beirut, only the residential sector consumes 50% of total electricity consumption. HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air conditioning) systems are used to reach acceptable thermal comfort levels in the new residential buildings. In case of the traditional bourgeoisie houses in Beirut, there are no discussions about the use of HVAC systems to achieve the required thermal comfort level. Thus, to reach an acceptable thermal comfort level, these houses which already contain natural ventilation system shall adapt the modern thermal comfort requirements and thermal comfort strategies and technologies where their architectural features and existing materials condition the available solutions. In order to identify the best options within the possible intervention lines (envelopes, passive strategies, equipment, renewable energy systems), it is necessary to perceive the real performance of this type of houses. In this context, the article presents the results of the study of thermal performance and comfort in a three case studies located in Beirut. Detailed field data records collected are analyzed, with a view to identify the indoor thermal environment with respect to outdoor thermal environment in different seasons. Monitoring also included measurement of hygrothermal parameters and surveys of occupant thermal sensation.


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Temperature and Humidity measured for indoor and outdoor during summer