International Journal of Applied Science 2020-02-18T15:23:59+08:00 Jack Wood Open Journal Systems <p>International Journal of Applied Science (IJAS) is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal, published by IDEAS SPREAD INC. It publishes original research, applied, and educational articles in all areas of applied science. It provides an academic platform for professionals and researchers to contribute innovative work in the field.<br>Authors are encouraged to submit complete, unpublished, original works that are not under review in any other journals. The scopes of the journal include, but are not limited to, the following fields: Agriculture, Biological Engineering and Application, Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Applied Physics and Engineering, Applied Chemistry and Materials Sciences, Civil Engineering and Architecture, Computer and Information Sciences and Application, Energy, Environmental Science and Engineering, Mechanics, Metrology, Military Science, Space Science, Sports Science, Ergonomics, Health Sciences, Fisheries science, Food Science, Forestry and all the fields related to applied science.<br>The journal is published in both print and online versions. The online version is free access and download.</p> Smart Simulation for Decision Support at Headquarters 2020-02-18T15:23:59+08:00 Ariane Bitoun Hans ten Bergen Yann Prudent <p>While serious games are being widely adopted by NATO and partner nations, their use is currently limited to training and operations planning. In this paper, we explore new methods that use simulations for decision support during the execution of military operations. During this phase, the commander makes decisions based on knowledge of the situation and the primary objectives. We propose here to take a simulation containing smart and autonomous units, and use it to create new kinds of decision support tools capable of improving situation awareness, and consequently the quality of decisions. The breakthrough behind this initiative is the realization that we can provide HQ decision makers with access to a version of the information that smart simulated units use to make decisions. To ensure the approach was sound we first studied decision-making processes, and analyzed how situation awareness improves decision making. After analysis of the decision-making processes at various headquarters, and the types of decision criteria employed, we are able to produce innovative information, computed by the simulation, and fed by the command and control system. We then propose a prerequisite architecture, and describe the first results of our proof of concept work based on the SWORD (Simulation Wargaming for Operational Research and Doctrine) simulation.</p> <p>Based on the current situation (intelligence, operational state, logistics, etc.) and the current maneuver (current task), examples of what we are now capable of are as follows:&nbsp; provide an immediate local force ratio map, produce a capacities map (detection, combat), compute contextual fire or logistic support time required, automatically generate lines of battle such as the Forward Line of Own Troops (FLOT), Limit Of Advance (LOA), Line of Contact (LC), Forward Edge of Battle Area (FEBA), or propose an effect based maneuver map in order to understand the current effect of the forces on the ground. We then propose a prerequisite architecture for use as a decision-support system at HQ, and describe the next smart layers that we believe should be developed for optimal results.</p> 2019-11-28T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Safety in Road Tunnels – Safety Target Proposal 2020-02-18T15:23:56+08:00 Jan Malmtorp Johan Lundin Peter Lundman Per Vedin <p>The purpose of this paper is to propose a quantitative target for assessment of life safety in road tunnels and describe how such a target can be utilized and developed further. The target is developed from an analysis of initiating events, accident statistics and analytical approaches and it makes it possible to tailor the safety concept in individual tunnels to meet the target by means of quantitative risk analyses. The results indicate that the practice proposed is beneficial for both quality and transparency in the decision-making, as well as it can be judged to have the potential to improve cost-efficiency in the safety related work. It is concluded that the target should be calibrated and evaluated with data from real tunnels before implementation and that the resulting safety level from present ruling is assessed. Also, it is concluded that the total cost to realize the safety target is assessed. It is recommended to put more effort on general accident prevention in tunnels compared to surface roads in order to reduce the number of events that may escalate beyond control. It is also recommended that the road tunnel safety learning processes are improved by routine collection, compilation and evaluation of data on road tunnel accidents as well as vehicle-fires and dangerous goods accidents in road traffic as a whole.</p> 2019-12-13T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Safety Related Challenges when Designing Sustainable Cities 2020-02-18T15:23:52+08:00 Göran Nygren Björn Yndemark Johan Lundin <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">The transition towards sustainable city planning is challenging from many perspectives, e.g. the speed of development towards fossil free fuels and updating of regulations for controlling risk in the transport infrastructure do not manage to keep an even pace. This applies both at the detailed level regarding technical design requirements and on a more comprehensive performance level of safety objectives that can be verified to confirm compliance with society's safety objectives. This paper presents challenges, experiences and results in connection with the analysis of the risks associated with an underground bus terminal operated with gas-powered buses. A risk analysis approach used in an ongoing project in the final stage of the planning process, which makes it possible to discuss experiences and difficulties based on work in practice. Two main types of injury are studied; fire and explosion, where people can be exposed to both high temperatures, toxic smoke, radiation, pressure waves and impact by flying debris. Fire, may occur with ignition of combustible gas mixture (in air). It can be noted that an underground bus terminal operated by gas-powered buses constitutes a complex facility from a risk perspective and that the risk level without special consideration for additional safety measures is expected to be high. Therefore, a safety concept is required that is balanced between different types of measures, such as supervision, control and safety enhancing installations as well as inherent passive protection.</span></p> 2019-12-18T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Marriage Ceremony in Batak Toba Tribe: Between Consumerism and Purpose of Life 2020-02-18T15:23:50+08:00 Mangihut Siregar <p>The marriage ceremony for the Batak Toba tribe is a bond between a man and a woman along with relatives of men and women. Through marriage ceremonies they can enter the <em>dalihan na tolu </em>system, carry out a life cycle, become adults and have the right to enter the Batak lineage (<em>tarombo</em>). Because of the importance of the meaning of the marriage ceremony, the Batak Toba people continue to carry out this tradition.</p> <p>According to the tradition of the ancient people, the marriage ceremony was carried out simply by mutual cooperation. In accordance with its development, the marriage ceremony changed from simple to consumerism. Consumerism occurs in mindset, behavior and also matter. Consumer behavior is influenced by: globalization, lifestyle, popular culture and a lack of understanding of the meaning of the Batak Toba marriage ceremony.</p> <p>The phenomenon of consumerism that occurs in the Batak Toba wedding ceremony is very complex because it follows a long procession at a high cost. Although the behavior of consumerism has long been a problem, but in reality they remain immersed in a culture of consumerism . The culture of consumerism on the one hand is a problem but on the other hand is an arena to achieve purpose of life.</p> 2019-12-22T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Complexity Perception Among Stakeholders of Blockchain Implementations: Can We Use a Measuring Instrument for this? 2020-02-18T15:23:47+08:00 Kees Tesselhof Jan Veuger <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">Blockchain is a (basic) technology that has made its mark in recent years. Blockchain is viewed just like the internet as a basic technique. One reason for implementing a blockchain is that it can make the purchase of a number of applications superfluous, because it can also offer the most important functionalities of these applications. Complexity perception is a concept that can be the subject of much debate. It is not easy to define, and yet people want to get a grip on it. This grip can be that people want to measure it. From research in 2017, a model (prototype) of a measuring instrument was designed in which complexity perception among stakeholders of an ERP implementation is measured (Tesselhof, 2018). Further research into what is already known about blockchain implementations in order to gain more control and understanding as well as research into the use of the measuring instrument in a blockchain implementation is necessary.</span></p> 2019-12-30T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##