International Journal of Applied Science 2019-07-24T09:44:24+08:00 Jack Wood Open Journal Systems <p>International Journal of Applied Science (IJAS) is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal, published by IDEAS SPREAD INC. It publishes original research, applied, and educational articles in all areas of applied science. It provides an academic platform for professionals and researchers to contribute innovative work in the field.<br>Authors are encouraged to submit complete, unpublished, original works that are not under review in any other journals. The scopes of the journal include, but are not limited to, the following fields: Agriculture, Biological Engineering and Application, Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Applied Physics and Engineering, Applied Chemistry and Materials Sciences, Civil Engineering and Architecture, Computer and Information Sciences and Application, Energy, Environmental Science and Engineering, Mechanics, Metrology, Military Science, Space Science, Sports Science, Ergonomics, Health Sciences, Fisheries science, Food Science, Forestry and all the fields related to applied science.<br>The journal is published in both print and online versions. The online version is free access and download.</p> Stractural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Corbel Using High-Strength Materials under Monotonic and Repeated Loads 2019-07-24T09:44:24+08:00 Al-Talqany F. J. Alhussainy A. M. <p>The growth of Development techniques for high strength materials and precast structures leads to increase the interesting on these technics. This study will focus on the corbels which made from high strength materials (Reactive Powder Concrete materials) which including&nbsp; the testing of (15 samples) and their cost, twelve of them were testing under a vertical monotonic load, while the other sample putted under the effect of repeated load. As well as, the samples divided to various groups according to many variable parameters which are (ratio of steel fiber, (a/d) ratio, existing the secondary stirrups steel, type of loading). Thus, these parameters effected on the ultimate shear strength, first crack loading, ultimate deflection, load-deflection curves, ductility and stiffness.</p> 2019-04-17T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Impact of Typical Cemetery on Groundwater Using both Geophysical Techniques and Physicochemical Analyses of Water in South-South, Nigeria 2019-07-24T09:44:22+08:00 Idehen Osabuohien <p>This research work focuses on the impact of cemetery on the groundwater with respect to time. It was carried out using Joint Geophysical Methods and Hydro physicochemical analysis.&nbsp; In addition to these methods this study went further to apply Multivariate Statistical Analyses (Water Quality Index, Principle Component Analysis, Cluster Analysis) in the investigation. This research work was done in Third Cemetery, New Benin, Benin City. Though there are three major cemeteries in Benin Metropolis Third Cemetery was selected for this purpose. In Benin City and Nigeria in general, the major cemeteries are located close to human residential areas and virtually all the populace within this locality depends on groundwater as the primary water source for various domestic purposes. The spread of electrodes reaches a maximum of 230m which covers the entire length of the cemetery. Electrodes (41) were needed in this research to generate data and the result compared with the physico-chemical analysis of groundwater. The field work covered a time lapse of six months (June, 2017 to December, 2017). Toxic chemicals that may be released into groundwater include substances that were used in embalming and burial practices as well as varnishes, sealers and preservatives and metal component of ornaments used on wooden coffins (Jonker and Olivier, 2012).Wood preservatives and paints used in coffin construction contain compounds such as copper, naphthalene and ammoniac or chromated copper arsenate (Spongberg and Becks, 2000). Paints contain lead, mercury, cadmium, and chromium; arsenic is used as a pigment, wood preservative and anti-fouling ingredient while barium is used as a pigment and a corrosion inhibitor (Katz and Salem, 2005; Huang <em>et al</em>., 2010; Jonker and Olivier, 2012).</p> 2019-06-10T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Blockchain in the Real Estate Sector 2019-07-24T09:44:20+08:00 Max Nijland Jan Veuger <p>The two primary characteristics of real estate assets are their heterogeneity and immobility. Because of these two factors, the market for buying real estate tends to be illiquid, localized and highly segmented, with privately negotiated transactions and high transaction costs due to the involvement of a vast amount of trusted third parties (Ling &amp; Archer, 2013). Because of these characteristics, and the opportunities Blockchain offers, the buying process of commercial real estate, and the involved stakeholders could be affected majorly by this technological phenomena. The lack of transparency, high transaction costs and the need for digitalization in commercial real estate companies give Blockchain its game-changing potential. The results have shown that the pre-marketing phase and due diligence phase are most suitable for the implementation of Blockchain. This due to the characteristics of the phases, characteristics of the stakeholders and the characteristics of Blockchain. The main aspect here can be focused on the added value of Blockchain as a data sharing program which could add value creating a more safe and secure way of sharing data. What should be mentioned is that the technology is in an early stage of development and therefore not (yet) suitable for the implementation in the real estate sector. Although multiple pilots and user cases could be mentioned, the technology needs to overcome some obstacles to be a beter success in the current buying process of commercial real estate.</p> 2019-06-11T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analysis of Impacts of Land Use Changes in Kitengela Conservation Area on Migratory Wildlife of Nairobi National Park, Kenya 2019-07-24T09:44:19+08:00 John K.M. Wandaka Kabii M. Francis <p>Nairobi National Park (NNP) in Kenya was established in 1946 to conserve the abundance and diversity of wildlife in the Kitengela-Athi-Kaputei plains, from excessive exploitation. It is currently fenced except on the Kitengela side across the Mbagathi River due to the sub-division of the group ranches, which commenced in the 1980s, limiting access of wildlife to the migratory corridor and dispersal areas. This paper is based on a study conducted to assess the impacts of the resultant land use changes in the Kitengela dispersal area/ migratory corridor on the migratory fauna of NNP, and to identify appropriate mitigation measures. The findings indicated that increased human settlement, led to changes in land uses which resulted into multiple negative impacts on the migratory wildlife of Nairobi National Park, mainly due to loss of dispersal area and blockage of migratory routes, leading to wildlife confinement, decreased wildlife tolerance and increased incidences of human wildlife conflicts. Data analysis indicated decline in migratory wildlife population thus negative effect (F=<sub>, </sub>6.066, p&lt;0.05). The findings also indicated that loss of migratory routes/dispersal area and reduced vegetation cover was regarded by 55% of the local community respondents as one of the main consequences of the land use changes resulting from the subdivision of the group ranches leading to decreased wildlife tolerance (β = 0.246) and wildlife confinement (β = 0.371) in NNP (p= 0.021, &lt; 0.05, F= 2.678; R=0.179, R<sup>2</sup>= 0.032). The paper also discusses the mitigation measures for the longtime sustainability of the park, the dispersal area and migratory corridor, including holistic implementation of the Kitengela-Isinya-Kipeto Local Physical Development Plan, mapping and protection of the vital wildlife areas within the migratory range, including the wildebeest calving area in North Kaputiei.</p> 2019-06-14T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Reviewer Acknowledgements for International Journal of Applied Science, Vol. 2, No. 2 2019-07-18T13:04:13+08:00 Jack Wood <p><em>International Journal of Applied Science</em> wishes to acknowledge the following individuals for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Their help and contributions in maintaining the quality of the journal is greatly appreciated.</p> <p><em>International Journal of Applied Science</em> is recruiting reviewers for the journal. If you are interested in becoming a reviewer, we welcome you to join us. Please find the application form and details at and e-mail the completed application form to</p> <p><strong>Reviewers for Volume 2, Number 2</strong></p> <p>Alireza Goli, Yazd University, Iran</p> <p>Galya Georgieva-Tsaneva, Institute of Robotics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria</p> <p>Mohammad Irfan Ali, Suresh Gyan vihar University, India</p> <p>Monika-Hadaś Dyduch, University of Economics in Katowice, Poland</p> <p>Nadhra Boukrouma, University of Souk Ahras, Algeria</p> <p>Nanjappan A. N. Swaminathen, Anna University, India</p> <p>Nyle Pardillo, Faculty and Researcher, Philippines</p> <p>Pandian K. Pandi, Sardar raja College of Engineering, India</p> 2019-07-01T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##