International Journal of Applied Science <p>International Journal of Applied Science (IJAS) is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal, published by IDEAS SPREAD INC. It publishes original research, applied, and educational articles in all areas of applied science. It provides an academic platform for professionals and researchers to contribute innovative work in the field.<br>Authors are encouraged to submit complete, unpublished, original works that are not under review in any other journals. The scopes of the journal include, but are not limited to, the following fields: Agriculture, Biological Engineering and Application, Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Applied Physics and Engineering, Applied Chemistry and Materials Sciences, Civil Engineering and Architecture, Computer and Information Sciences and Application, Energy, Environmental Science and Engineering, Mechanics, Metrology, Military Science, Space Science, Sports Science, Ergonomics, Health Sciences, Fisheries science, Food Science, Forestry and all the fields related to applied science.<br>The journal is published in both print and online versions. The online version is free access and download.</p> en-US <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.<br>This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (</p> (Jack Wood) (Technical Support) Fri, 06 Mar 2020 12:05:39 +0800 OJS 60 Evaluation of Thermal Comfort in the Traditional Bourgeoisie Houses in Beirut <p>The increasing of energy demands has considerably increased the requirements for new and traditional buildings in different climate zones. Unprecedented heat waves have increased climate temperature, in particular, in moderate climate zones such as Lebanon. In Beirut, only the residential sector consumes 50% of total electricity consumption. HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air conditioning) systems are used to reach acceptable thermal comfort levels in the new residential buildings. In case of the traditional bourgeoisie houses in Beirut, there are no discussions about the use of HVAC systems to achieve the required thermal comfort level. Thus, to reach an acceptable thermal comfort level, these houses which already contain natural ventilation system shall adapt the modern thermal comfort requirements and thermal comfort strategies and technologies where their architectural features and existing materials condition the available solutions. In order to identify the best options within the possible intervention lines (envelopes, passive strategies, equipment, renewable energy systems), it is necessary to perceive the real performance of this type of houses. In this context, the article presents the results of the study of thermal performance and comfort in a three case studies located in Beirut. Detailed field data records collected are analyzed, with a view to identify the indoor thermal environment with respect to outdoor thermal environment in different seasons. Monitoring also included measurement of hygrothermal parameters and surveys of occupant thermal sensation.</p> Jad Hammoud, Elise Abi Rached ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0800 Politics of Cultural Tourism in the North Sumatera Samosir Island <p>Tourism has become a very promising industry in increasing economic development. Each region is competing to market their area as a tourist destination in order to get foreign exchange. All resources, such as natural resources, human resources, special interest resources, especially cultural resources, are all maximized for the advancement of tourism.</p> <p>In an effort to increase regional income, the Samosir Regency Government of North Sumatra Province took a breakthrough to attract tourists to visit Samosir Island. One of the efforts made is by demonstrating cultural tourism, which is the ritual performance of <em>mangalahat horbo bius </em>ritual. This show is held every year in the Horas Samosir Fiesta event. The <em>mangalahat horbo bius</em> ritual performance began in 2008 at Batu Hobon, Limbong Sagala Village, Sianjur Mulamula Samosir Sub District. Since it was made a ritual, the<em> mangalahat horbo bius</em> became a show on Samosir Island, there were pros and cons in the community where the Catholic Church supported the show as the way to spread religion. Meanwhile the Samosir Regency government as the initiator of the show, has the aim to attract the interest of the visit. The party who openly rejected the show was the Batak Christian Protestant Church (HKBP).</p> <p>Since the beginning, the <em>mangalahat horbo bius</em> ritual performance has experienced controversy in the community. The aim is to attract visits to the Samosir Island area to be counter productive. Therefore, at every <em>mangalahat horbo bius</em> ritual performance, the number of tourist visits to Samosir Island always decreases. In this case the local community is less supportive of the show while tourists visiting Samosir Island avoid the <em>mangalahat</em> <em>horbo bius</em> ritual show for reasons of showing sadism.</p> Mangihut Siregar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0800