International Journal of Applied Science https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ijas <p>International Journal of Applied Science (IJAS) is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal, published by IDEAS SPREAD INC. It publishes original research, applied, and educational articles in all areas of applied science. It provides an academic platform for professionals and researchers to contribute innovative work in the field.<br>Authors are encouraged to submit complete, unpublished, original works that are not under review in any other journals. The scopes of the journal include, but are not limited to, the following fields: Agriculture, Biological Engineering and Application, Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Applied Physics and Engineering, Applied Chemistry and Materials Sciences, Civil Engineering and Architecture, Computer and Information Sciences and Application, Energy, Environmental Science and Engineering, Mechanics, Metrology, Military Science, Space Science, Sports Science, Ergonomics, Health Sciences, Fisheries science, Food Science, Forestry and all the fields related to applied science.<br>The journal is published in both print and online versions. The online version is free access and download.</p> IDEAS SPREAD INC en-US International Journal of Applied Science 2576-7240 <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.<br>This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).</p> The Effect of Bio, Organic and Mineral Fertilizations on the Activity of the Urease, L-Glutaminase and L-Aspartase Enzymes in the Soil https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ijas/article/view/654 <p>The study aimed to investigate the effect of the application of various sources of fertilizers on the activity of urease, L-glutaminase, and L-aspartase enzymes in the rhizosphere and bulk soils. Pots experiment was carried out in the wire canopy in one of the fields affiliated to the Faculty of Agriculture - the University of Qadisiyah for the summer season 2018 in soil with a silty loam texture. Seeds of mung bean crops were cultivated of a local variety (Khedrawi). The treatments of the study were two levels of nitrogenous mineral fertilizer (urea) (M<sub>1</sub> and M<sub>2</sub>) (20 and 40) kg.N.h<sup>-1</sup>, respectively, a single level of organic fertilizer (poultry waste) (10 tons h<sup>-1</sup>), a single level of bio-fertilizer with <em>Pseudomonas fluorescens</em> bacteria, the control, and their interactions<strong>.</strong> The experiment was carried out according to Completely Randomized Design (C.R.D) with six replications<strong>.</strong> Means were compared according to the (L.S.D) test at the probability level (α=0.05<strong>(</strong>. The efficiency of urase, L-clotamene, and L-aspartase in the soil of the root zoon and bulk soil were estimated for all study parameters 30 days after planting. These measurements were done once again for some characteristics of vegetative and root growth after 60 days of planting.</p> <p>The bio-fertilizer treatment (B) resulted in the highest increase in the efficiency of the urease enzyme and L-aspartase for 30 days of cultivation compared to the control treatment that recorded the least value of the enzyme activity average (45.22 and 42.54) µg N-NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>.g<sup>-1</sup> soil.2h<sup>-1</sup>, respectively, for the rhizosphere and bulk soils. These values were increased after 60 days of cultivation (45.34 and 43.16) µg N-NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>.g<sup>-1</sup> soil.2h<sup>-1</sup>, respectively, for the rhizosphere and bulk soils. This treatment achieves the highest increase in the activity of L-enzymes (25.89 and 24.72) µg N-NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>.g<sup>-1</sup> soil.2h<sup>-1</sup>, respectively, for the region of the rhizosphere and beyond. It increased after 60 days of cultivation (26.23 and 25.06) µg N-NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>.g<sup>-1</sup> soil.2h<sup>-1</sup>, respectively, for the region of the rhizosphere and bulk soils. The treatment of poultry wastes (O) resulted in the highest increase in the value of the activity of the L-clotamines enzyme in the rhizosphere and bulk soils for a period of 30 days from planting (43.47 and 57.39) µg N-NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>.g<sup>-1</sup> soil.2h<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. Its activity values then increased after 60 days of cultivation, reaching (44.33 and 40.43) µg N-NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>.g<sup>-1</sup> soil.2h<sup>-1</sup>, respectively.</p> <p>The overlap treatment between poultry residues and biofertilizers (OB) achieved the highest increase in the activity value for the urase enzyme, L-clotamines and L-aspartase in root zoon soil and distant soil for 30 days of cultivation (54.47, 46.84 and 28.28 µg N-NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>.g<sup>-1</sup> soil.2h<sup>-1</sup>, respectively, for the rhizosphere and (49.14, 37.81 and 23.94) µg N-NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>.g<sup>-1</sup> soil.2h<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The activity of enzymes then increased after 60 days of cultivation (54.56, 47.69 and 28.62) µg N-NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>.g<sup>-1</sup> soil.2h<sup>-1</sup>, respectively, for the rhizosphere (49.23, 38.67 and 24.18) µg N-NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>.g<sup>-1</sup> soil.2h<sup>-1</sup>, respectively, for the bulk soil. The combination treatments between poultry residues, bio-fertilizer, and urea at level II (OBM<sub>2</sub>) achieved the highest increase in the activity values for urease enzyme, L-clotamines and L-aspartase in root zoon soil and bulk soil for 30 days of cultivation (58.46, 48.58 and 30.40) µg N-NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>.g<sup>-1</sup> soil.2h<sup>-1</sup>, respectively for the rhizosphere, and (54.13, 46.30 and 27.62) µg N-NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>.g<sup>-1</sup> soil.2h<sup>-1</sup>, respectively, for the bulk soil. The activity of enzymes then increased 60 days after planting (58.55, 49.44 and 30.74) µg N-NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>.g<sup>-1</sup> soil.2h<sup>-1</sup>, respectively, for the rhizosphere (54.22, 47.15 and 27.96) µg N-NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>.g<sup>-1</sup> soil.2h<sup>-1</sup>, respectively, outside the rhizosphere.</p> Luma S. Al-Taweel Naseer Jawad Kazim ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-11-24 2020-11-24 3 4 p1 p1 10.30560/ijas.v3n4p1 Study on Fire Smoke Distribution and Smoke Control in Extra-long Double-hole Tunnel https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ijas/article/view/753 <p><strong>Abstract</strong><strong>:</strong></p> <p>Construction of tunnels, as one of the main methods to solve physical traffic barriers, However, It vulnerable to the threat of fire during the process of tunnel operation period. In response to such situation, this article explores the smoke distribution of extra-long double-tube tunnel and its impact on evacuation in the event of a fire. This paper take the Jieling tunnel as an example, and applies Accident Tree Analysis (ATA) method combined with Fires Dynamics Simulator (FDS)simulation software to study the changes of harmful factors such as tunnel smoke. According to the research, when a fire occurs in an extra-long double-tube tunnel, It is concluded that people are supposed to be guided to leave via the nearest cross-passages as soon as possible, In the end analysis the roles that air curtains could play in the control of smoke. It is recommended to open the air curtain so that in such condition people away from the cross-passages have enough time to escape.</p> Jingdan Gan Feng Shan Wu Hong Liu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 3 4 p17 p17 10.30560/ijas.v3n4p17