International Journal of Applied Science <p>International Journal of Applied Science (IJAS) is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal, published by IDEAS SPREAD INC. It publishes original research, applied, and educational articles in all areas of applied science. It provides an academic platform for professionals and researchers to contribute innovative work in the field.<br>Authors are encouraged to submit complete, unpublished, original works that are not under review in any other journals. The scopes of the journal include, but are not limited to, the following fields: Agriculture, Biological Engineering and Application, Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Applied Physics and Engineering, Applied Chemistry and Materials Sciences, Civil Engineering and Architecture, Computer and Information Sciences and Application, Energy, Environmental Science and Engineering, Mechanics, Metrology, Military Science, Space Science, Sports Science, Ergonomics, Health Sciences, Fisheries science, Food Science, Forestry and all the fields related to applied science.<br>The journal is published in both print and online versions. The online version is free access and download.</p> IDEAS SPREAD INC en-US International Journal of Applied Science 2576-7240 <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.<br>This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (</p> Assessing Consumer Behavior Components of Likeability Among Undergraduate Students Using Technology in the Classroom <p>Analysis of market research in Western society began in the early twentieth century and eventually spawned interest in the prediction of consumer behavior preferences. More recently, inquiry into consumer behavior patterns has focused on digital technologies and online platforms. Through a series of likelihood ratio tests, this study will assess cognitive reactions of undergraduate students to a compilation of classic American television commercials. Various components for determining likeability will be used in order to steer future market research and digital branding strategies.</p> James J. Tanoos ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-01-29 2021-01-29 4 1 p1 p1 10.30560/ijas.v4n1p1 Generalization of Intensity-Duration-Frequency Formula for Litani River Basin-Lebanon <p><img src="/public/site/images/ijas/802.png"></p> Hilal Obeid Mohamed Elkholy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-02-27 2021-02-27 4 1 p11 p11 10.30560/ijas.v4n1p11 Identifying the Temporal Causal Relationship Between Alcohol and Tobacco Consumption with Aggregate Cancer Mortality over Alternative Time Horizons <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">Identifying the causal role of tobacco and alcohol has long been acknowledged as a critical area for developing preventative strategies in particular and public policy in general. This study utilizes a unique time series method in an effort to determine the strength of causal relationships between tobacco consumption, alcohol consumption and cancer mortality. By analysing tobacco expenditure, alcohol expenditure, while controlling for health expenditures and aggregate cancer data observed annually over an 80-year period fin the US population, we consider the relevant factors explaining and potentially guiding public health concerns going forward. Our results found that while tobacco and alcohol consumption (individually) causally impact cancer mortality, alcohol consumption maintains a stronger, bidirectional impact in comparison to tobacco consumption. From this, we consider explanations from an economic, biological and epidemiological front, gauging the strength of alcohol consumption on societal wellbeing. We find alcohol consumption to be a notable causal factor in cancer mortality that has been neglected from a public policy perspective in comparison to its more mediated tobacco counterpart. </span></p> Zahra N. Masih ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 4 1 p24 p24 10.30560/ijas.v4n1p24