Entrepreneurial Values, Cognitive Attitude toward Business and Business Behavioural Intention of ABM Grade 12 and Fourth-Year Business Management Students: A Comparative Study

  • Damianus Abun School of Business, Divine Word College of Laoag, Ilocos Norte, Philippines
  • Theogenia Magallanes School of Religious Education, Saint Benedict College of Northern Luzon, Ilocos Sur, Philippines
  • Frelyn, B. Ranay School of Business, Divine Word College of Laoag, Ilocos Norte, Philippines
  • Nimfa C. Catbagan School of Arts, Science, and Education, Divine Word College of Laoag, Ilocos Norte, Philippines
  • Rodelyn, J. Calairo School of Basic Education, Divine Word College of Laoag, Ilocos Norte, Philippines
Keywords: attitude, entrepreneurial values, business intention, values education


The study aimed to determine the difference in entrepreneurial values, cognitive attitude toward business, the business intention between ABM grade XII and the fourth-year college students of business management course. It also seeks to find out the effect of entrepreneurial values, cognitive attitude toward the business behavioral intention. The study found that entrepreneurial values, cognitive attitude toward business, and business intention of students are high and it further found that there is no significant difference between entrepreneurial values, cognitive attitude toward business, the business intention of ABM grade XII students, and the fourth – year college students of business management course. Thus, the hypothesis is rejected. It also found that there is a significant correlation between entrepreneurial values, cognitive attitude toward the business, and business behavioral intention. Therefore, the hypothesis is accepted.


Abun, D., Foronda, S. L. G. L., Belandres, M. L. V., Agoot, F., & Magallanes, T. (2018). Measuring Entrepreneurial Knowledge and Entrepreneurial Intention of ABM Grade XII, Senior High School Students of Divine Word Colleges in Region I, Philippines. EPH - International Journal of Educational Research, 2(3).
Abun, D., Foronda, S. L. G., Agoot, F., Belandres, M. L.V., & Magallanes, T. (2018). Measuring entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial intention of ABM grade XII, Senior High School Students of Divine Word Colleges in Region I, Philippines. International Journal of Applied Research, 4(4), 100-114.
Abun, D., Magallanes, Th., Encarnacion, M. J., Alkalde, F., & Somera, K. A. (2019). Investigation of Cognitive and Affective Attitude of Students toward Environment and Their Environmental Behavioural Intention to Join Environmental Movement and Energy Conservation. The International Journal of Business Management and Technology, 3(6).
Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl and J. Beckmann (Eds.), Action control: From cognition to behavior (pp. 11-39). New York: Springer-Verlag. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-69746-3_2
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T
Ajzen, I. (2001). Nature and Operation of Attitudes. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 27-58. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.27
Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley.
Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Ariola, M. M. (2006). Principles and Methods of Research. Manila: National Bookstore.
Baah-Boateng, W. (2013). Human Capital Development: The Case of Education as a vehicle for Africa’s Economic Transformation. Legon Journal of International Affairs and Diplomacy (LEJIAD), 7(1), 31-55.
Baht, A. (2020). Descriptive Research: Definition, Characteristics, Methods, Examples, and Advantages. Question Pro. Retrieved from https://www.questionpro.com.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Bandura, A. (1991). Self-efficacy mechanism in physiological activation and health-promoting behavior. In J. Madden (Ed.), Neurobiology of learning, emotion, and affect (pp. 229-269). New York: Raven.
Bandura, A. (1994). Social cognitive theory and exercise of control over HIV infection. In R.J. DiClemente and J. L. Peterson (Eds.), Preventing AIDS: Theories and methods of behavioral interventions (pp. 25-29). New York: Plenum Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-1193-3_3
Becker, M. H. (1974). The health belief model and personal health behavior. Health Education Monographs, 2, 324-508. https://doi.org/10.1177/109019817400200407
Becker, M. H. (1988). AIDS and behavior change. Public Health Reviews, 16, 1-11.
Best, J. R. (2010). Human Capital Development in Education: Challenges and Policy Option. Denver: McREL.
Bolton W. K., & Thompson, J. L. (2000). Entrepreneurs: Talent, Temperament, Technique. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.
Broen, D., & Assoiates (2002). Career Choice and Development (4th Ed.). New York: Jossey-Bass
Calman, K. C. (2004). Evolutionary ethics: can values change. Journal of Medical Ethics, 30, 366-370. https://doi.org/10.1136/jme.2002.003582
Cambridge Dictionary. (n.d). Entrepreneur. Retrieved from https://dictionary.cambridge.org.
Cherry, K. (2020). Attitudes and Behaviors in Psychology. Very Well Mind. Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com.
Covin, J. G., Slevin, D.P. (1989). Strategic management of small firms in hostile and benign environments. Strategic Management Journal, 10(1), 75-87. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250100107
Crocker, R. (2006). Human Capital Development and Education. Canada: CPRN
Desjardins, R. (2015). Education and Social Transformation. European Journal of Education, 50(3), 239-244. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejed.12140
Dewey, J. (1922). Human Nature and Conduct. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York: Macmillan.
Didar, A. F. (2020). Entrepreneurship, a Triangle of Values. Start-up Grind. Retrieved from https://www.startupgrind.com
Drucker, P. (1970). Entrepreneurship in Business Enterprise. Journal of Business Policy, 1(2).
Erkkilä, K. (2000). Entrepreneurial education: mapping the debates in the United States. Abingdon: Taylor & Francis
Eroglu, A., & Picak, M. (2011). Entrepreneurship, National Culture, and Turkey. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(16).
Fayolle, A., & Gailly, B. (2008). From craft to science - Teaching models and learning processes in entrepreneurship education. Journal of European Industrial Training, 32, 569-593. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090590810899838
Feather, N.T. (1994). Values and national identification: Australian evidence. Australian Journal of Psychology, 46(1), 35-40. https://doi.org/10.1080/00049539408259467
Fishbein, M. (2000). The role of theory in HIV prevention. AIDS Care, 12(3), 273-278. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540120050042918
Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Fishbein, M., Middlestadt, S. E., & Hitchcock, P. J. (1991). Using information to change sexually transmitted disease-related behaviors: An analysis based on the theory of reasoned action. In R. J. DiClemente & J. L. Peterson (Eds.), Preventing AIDS: Theories and methods of behavioral interventions (pp. 61-78). (Reprinted in modified form from J. N. Wasserheit et al (Eds.). Research Issues in Human Behavior and Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the AIDS Era. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 1991, pp. 243-266). Plenum Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-1193-3_4
Fishbein, M., Triandis, H. C., Kanfer, F. H., Becker, M. H., Middlestadt, S. E., & Eichler, A. (2001). Factors influencing behavior and behavior change. In A. Baum, T. R. Revenson, and J. E. Singer (Eds.). Handbook of health psychology (pp. 3-17). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Gartner, W. B. (1990). What are we talking about when we talk about entrepreneurship? Journal of Business Venturing, 5, 15-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-9026(90)90023-M
Gonsalez, J. A. M., & Kobylinska, U. (2019). Influence of personal variables on entrepreneurial intention: A comparative study between Poland and Spain. Engineering Management in Production and Services, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.2478/emj-2019-0005
Halis, M., Ozsabuncuoglub, I. H., & Ozsagir, A. (2007). The Values of Entrepreneurship and Factors that Effect entrepreneurship: Findings from Anatolia. Serbian Journal of Management, 2(1), 21-34.
Halstead, J. M., & Taylor, M. J. (2000). The Development of Values, Attitudes, and Personal Qualities. Berkshire: National Foundation of Educational Research.
Haste, H. (2018). Attitudes and Values and the OECD Learning Framework 2030: A critical review of definitions, concepts, and data. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org.pdf.
Hofstede, G. (1984). Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Holwerda, J. (2018). The Relationship between Entrepreneurial Knowledge and Intention. Unpublished Thesis: Kajaanin Ammattikorkeakoulu University.
Investopedia. (n.d). Entrepreneur. Retrieved from https://www.investopedia.com
Investopedia. (n.d). Entrepreneurs and Entrepreneurship Defined. Retrieved from https://www.investopedia.com.
Jaen, I., Linan, F., & Moriano, J. (2015). Beyond Entrepreneurial Intentions: Values and Motivations in Entrepreneurship. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 10, 679-689. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-014-0306-7
Jaen, I., Linan, F., & Moriano, J. (2015). Personal Values and Entrepreneurial Intention: An Empirical Study. A Conference Paper Presented at the ESU Conference, University of Tartu, Estonia.
Jovkovska, A., & Barakoska, A. (2014). The Role of Education in the Formation of Values and Value Orientations among Adolescents. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering, and Education, 2(2).
Kadir, M. B. A., Salim, M., & Kamarudin, H. (2012). The Relationship between Educational Support and Entrepreneurial Intentions in Malaysian Higher Learning Institution. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 69, 2164-2173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.12.182
Katz, D. (1960). The Function of Attitude. Public opinion quarterly, 24, 163-204. https://doi.org/10.1086/266945
Knight, F. H. (1921). Risk, Uncertainty, and Profit. Boston, MA: Hart, Schaffner & Marx; Houghton Mifflin Company.
Koe, W. L., Krishnan, R., & Utami, S. (2018). The Influence of Entrepreneurial Skills on Business Start-Up Intention Among Bumiputra Students. Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 12(2).
Koffka, K. (1935). Principles of Gestalt psychology. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and Company.
Lackeus, M. (2015). Entrepreneurship Education: Why, What, When, How. European Commission: OECD
Leedy, P. D. (1974). Practical Research: Planning and Design. New York: Macmillan.
Lin, L. L., Pena, A. V., & Chen, C. N. (2017). Factors related to the Intention of Starting a New Business in El Salvador. Asia Pacific Management Review, 22(4). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmrv.2017.07.008
Mahieu, R. (2006). Agents of change and policies of scale: a policy study of entrepreneurship and enterprise in education. Doctoral thesis, Umeå Universitet
Malebana, M. J. (2014). The Effect of Knowledge of Entrepreneurial Support on Entrepreneurial Intention. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(20), 1020-1028. https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n20p1020
Malovics, E., Farkas, G., & Vajda, B. (2015). The appearance of Entrepreneurial Values and Strategic Orientation in the Basic Values. International Journal of Business and Management, 3(1), 18-35. https://doi.org/10.20472/BM.2015.3.1.002
Mankoff, A. W. (1974). Values-Nhatot Attitudes-Are the Real Key to Motivation. Management Review, 63, 23-29.
McClelland, D. C. (1961). The Achieving Society. New York: Van Nostrand. https://doi.org/10.1037/14359-000
McGrath, R. G., MacMillan I. C., Yang E. A., Tsai W. (1992). Does Culture Endure, or is it Malleable? Issues for Entrepreneurial Economic Development. J Bus Venturing, 7, 115-135. https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-9026(92)90019-N
McLeod, S. A. (2018). Attitudes and behavior. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from https://www.simplypsychology.org/attitudes.html
Meglino, B. M., Ravlin, E. C., & Adkins, C. L. (1989). A Work Values Approach to Corporate Culture: A Field Test of Value Congruence Process and Its Relationship to Individual Outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(3), 424-432. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.3.424
Morris, M., & Schindehutte, M. (2005). Entrepreneurial Values and the Ethnic Enterprise: An Examination of Six Subcultures. Journal of Small Business and Management, 43(4). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-627X.2005.00147.x
National Research Council. (2003). Attitudes, Aptitudes, and Aspirations of American Youth: Implications for Military Recruitment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/10478.
OECD. (2019). Attitude and Values for 2030. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org.pdf
Ortmeyer, D. (1949). The Concept of Attitude. Iowa: Iowa Academy of Science, Inc.
Ozarrali, N., & Rivenburgh, N. (2016). Entrepreneurial Intention: Antecedence to Entrepreneurial Behavior in the USA and Turkey. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 6(3). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40497-016-0047-x
QAA. (2012). Enterprise and entrepreneurship education: Guidance for UK higher education providers. Gloucester, UK: The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education.
Rokeach, M. (1973). The Nature of Human Values. New York: The Free.
Ronconi, L., & Anchorena, J. (2012). Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial Values, and Public Policy in Argentina. Argentina: Inter-American Development Bank. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2156788
Rosenstock, I. M. (1974). The health belief model and preventive health behavior. Health Education Monographs, 2, 354-386. https://doi.org/10.1177/109019817400200405
Rozan, M. Z. A., & Zibarzani, M. (2018). A study of entrepreneurial mindset through the dual-sided role as service seeker and service provider among university students. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 26(4), 2473-2487.
Sarasvathy, S. D. (2015). What Makes Entrepreneur Entrepreneurial? Retrieved from http://www.effectuation.org
Schumpeter, J. A. (1965). Economic Theory and Entrepreneurial History. In: Aitken HG (ed) Explorations in an enterprise. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Schumpeter, J. A. (1980). A gazdasági Fejlődés elmélete. Budapest: KJK.
Semple, R. (2019). Do Values Change Over Time? Leadership Development. Retrieved from https://www.flashpointleadership.com
Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2007). The Promise of Entrepreneurship as a Field of Research & Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-48543-0_8
Smilor, R. (2004). The Values that Sustain Entrepreneur. Kauffman Entrepreneurs. Retrieved from https://www.entrepreneurship.org.
Smithers, D., & Catanzaro, J.L. (2014). Innovate. Create. Execute. – An Entrepreneurial Mindset in Higher Education. Retrieved from https://www.tbr.edu/sites/tbr.edu/files/Dayna%20Smithers.pdf
Statistic Solutions (n.d). Multiple Regression. Retrieved from https://www.statisticssolutions.com
The World Bank (2020). Countries can Take Steps Now to Rebuilt from Covid-19. Retrieved from https://www.worldbank.org
The World Bank. (2020). Global Economic Prospect. Retrieved from https://www.worldbank.org
Titchener, E. B. (1910). A Text-Book of Psychology. New York: The MacMillan Company. https://doi.org/10.1037/11606-000
Triandis H.C. (1972). The analysis of subjective culture. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Türkkahraman, M. (2014). Social values and value of education. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 633-638. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.270
UPSTATE University of South Carolina. (n.d). Literature Review: Purpose of a Literature Review. Library. Retrieved from https://uscupstate.libguides.com
Wasserheit, J., Aral, S., & Holmes, K. (Eds.) (1991). Research issues in human behavior and sexually transmitted diseases in the AIDS era (pp. 243-257). Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology
Weber, M. (1905). The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. New York, United States: Unwin Hyman.
Whatls.com (n.d). Empirical Analysis. Retrieved from https://whatis.techtarget.com
Williams, M.K. (2017). John Dewey in the 21st Century. Journal of Inquiry & Action in Education, 9(1).
Јоксимовић, С., & Јањетовић, Д. (2008). Појам о себи и вредноснеоријентацијеадолесц ената, Зборник Института за педагошка истраживања. Београд, 2, 288-305.
The conceptual framework of the study reflects the influence of independent variables toward the dependent variable or the influence of entrepreneurial attitude and cognitive attitude toward the business behavioral intention. In this case, any positive change along with entrepreneurial values and cognitive attitude toward business can affect the business intention of students.