Humanities and Social Science Research 2021-03-07T05:06:12+08:00 Leon Cliff Open Journal Systems <p>Humanities and Social Science Research (HSSR) is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal published by <span lang="EN-US">IDEAS SPREAD INC</span>. The journal focuses on the following topics: Anthropology, Sociology, Politics, Culture, Philosophy, Economics, Education, Management, Arts, Psychology, Archaeology, Classics, History, Linguistics and Languages, Law and Politics, Literature, Philosophy, Religion. <br>It provides an academic platform for professionals and researchers to contribute innovative work in the field. The journal carries original and full-length articles that reflect the latest research and developments in both theoretical and practical aspects of society and human behaviors. The journal is published in both print and online versions. The online version is free access and download.</p> Islamic Policy of the Dutch East Indies Colonial Government in Madura in the First Quarter of the 20th Century 2021-03-07T05:06:12+08:00 Iswahyudi Iswahyudi <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">At first the Dutch East Indies government policy towards Islam was wrong, because Islam in the Dutch East Indies was considered a strict religion like the hierarchical priesthood and the pope in Christianity where there was a high relationship of loyalty to the Turkish caliph, so that Islam was considered a formidable enemy. Starting with the implementation of a massive policy by the Dutch East Indies government to suppress Muslims, for example, one of them was in terms of limiting and heavier the regulations for the implementation of the pilgrimage, but in reality, regardless of the obstacles, the frequency of going on hajj was still high. Awareness of the mistakes in political policy towards Islam, the figure of Cristian Snouck Hurgronje, one of the supporters of ethical currents in the Netherlands, appeared, submitting a letter to the minister of the colonies on June 2, 1889 to participate in solving problems in the Dutch East Indies. In this case Snouk Hurgronje was the main advisor and was assisted by advisers consisting of one for Arab affairs and two experts in regional languages ​​in the Dutch East Indies. Based on Snouck Hurgronje's advice, the Dutch colonial government distinguished between Islam in the meaning of worship and Islam as a social, social and political force. This policy towards Islam is divided into three categories, namely the socio-religious field, the socio-cultural sector, and the socio-political sector.</span></p> 2021-01-06T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Museums and Communication: The Case of the Louvre Museum at the Covid-19 Age 2021-03-07T05:06:11+08:00 Lara Corona <p>In the last few decades, modern technology has changed the way people communicate. Owing to being an integral part of society, museums have also been influenced by this phenomenon. This paper aims to provide a general overview of the main communication tools, such as social media and the website. This work's purpose is to highlight how museums can reach a bi-directional communication that allows society to maintain a certain interaction with visitors, even in periods when physical access to the collections is not possible. In order to achieve this goal, the essay deals with the adoption of the main tools of modern communication by the Louvre Museum in Paris. It sets out the usage of Instagram, Facebook and the website and highlights the feedback before and after the lockdown occurred due to the Covid-19 virus.</p> 2021-01-08T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Reception of Bicultural Identity in Arabic Diaspora Literature: The Works of Elia Abu Madi in Qisshat Al-Adabi Al-Mahjary 2021-03-07T05:06:09+08:00 Fadlil Munawwar Manshur <p>Literature by the Arab diaspora in the United States has promoted dialectical interpretations of authors' cultural identities, balancing their ancestral cultural identities with those of their new country. In regards to the bicultural identity found in the Arabic-language poetry of Elia Abu Madi, it can be seen that the poet produced several discourses portraying a bicultural reality. The historical essence of Arabic diaspora literature is found not only in its social expressions and representations, but also in the interactions of Arabic and American culture that have produced a bicultural identity. It consists of five key concepts: sign analysis, which functions to reveal the meaning of signs or symbols in the material object; interpreter analysis, which functions to discover the correlations between authors' intents and readers' horizons of expectation; effect analysis, which functions to reveal the influence of literary works on their readers; reference analysis, which functions to reveal authors' repertoires; and context or conditions analysis, which functions to reveal the bicultural identity of authors. This research concludes that, in the author's bicultural identity, the United States is positioned as a prosperous country of dynamic multiculturalism, where people are passionate in their work and art. Meanwhile, Lebanon is positioned as a country where people live mechanically, facing hardship and minimal productivity owing to their lack of security. Conversely, although the United States is prosperous and safe, owing to its orientation towards religious pluralism, its people are more positivistic and material in their lives. They thus tend to ignore spiritual aspects.</p> 2021-02-03T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##