Holistic Education

Blending the Botho, Human Factor Ethos of Basotho Traditional Education, with the Scientific Perspectives of 21st Century Western Education

  • Ilongo Fritz Ngale National University of Lesotho, Lesotho
  • Mahlatsi Monaheng National University of Lesotho, Lesotho
Keywords: Basotho traditional education, Botho, experiential and participative approaches, entrepreneurship, human factor, holistic education


This paper posits that it is the blend of Botho, or Human Factor ethos of Basotho traditional education with the scientific perspectives of 21st century western education, that can effectively lead to holistic education. The methodology is basic research, while the theoretical framework is critical theoretical analyses articulated around triple axes of the traditional Basotho educational system, the modern western educational system, and a hypothetical third perspective or holistic education. This paper will highlight the Botho tenets of Basotho traditional education, 21st century skills, and resultant holistic education. This paper proposes educational transformation or holistic education through the integration of both the experiential, participative, and social learning orientation of traditional Basotho education, with the scientific, virtual, technological and entrepreneurial perspectives of modern western education. The paper proposes policy recommendations for the development of holistic education in modern Lesotho.