Kasule, F Farmer Preference of Cassava Cultivars in Eastern Uganda: A Choice Beyond Disease Resistance

  • Kasule Faizo Makerere University
  • Peter Wasswa College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Department of Agricultural Production, Makerere University, Uganda
  • Settumba Brasio Mukasa College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Department of Agricultural Production, Makerere University, Uganda
  • Anthony Okiror College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Department of Agricultural Production, Makerere University, Uganda
  • Selma Ndapewa Nghituwamhata College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Department of Agricultural Production, Makerere University, Uganda
  • Evalyne Chepkoech Rono College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Department of Agricultural Production, Makerere University, Uganda
  • Clever Mukuze College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Department of Agricultural Production, Makerere University, Uganda
  • Agnes Wakesho Mwang'ombe Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, University of Nairobi, Kenya
Keywords: Cassava brown streak disease, cassava mosaic disease, preferred cassava cultivars, cassava attributes


The cassava breeding program in Uganda has released many improved cultivars resistant/tolerant to cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD). However, many farmers have continued to use cultivars that are susceptible to these major viral diseases but with diverse attributes. There is a need to understand farmers’ cassava cultivar attribute preferences and CBSD, CMD prevalence on the preferred cultivars. A total of 150 cassava farmer fields (74 in Bukedea district and 76 in Kumi district) located in eastern Uganda were evaluated for farmers’ cultivars and attribute preferences, as well as prevalence of CBSD and CMD on the farmer selected cultivars. The eastern region was of interest in the study, due to it-being the major cassava producing area in the country. In addition, 30 cassava plants of different genotypes were chosen randomly along transects of each field and assessed for CBSD/CMD incidence and severity on preferred cultivars. Results showed that more than 64% of the farmers in eastern Uganda preferred NASE 03 due to its sweet taste and high yields, followed by NASE 14 (21%) because of its high yields. There was a significant (P≤0.001) correlation between cassava cultivars preferred and CBSD severity (r = -0.56), CBSD incidence (r = -0.53), CMD severity (r = -0.51) and CMD incidence (r = -0.39). In corroboration, the most preferred cultivar, NASE 03 was found most susceptible to CBSD and CMD in both Bukedea and Kumi districts with CBSD incidence of 62.2% and 52.7% and CMD incidence of 56.9% and 34.3% respectively. The results showed that CBSD and CMD are prevalent on farmer preferred cassava cultivars, and that farmer cultivar preference depends not only on disease resistance but also other attributes.


Alicai, T., Ndunguru, J., Sseruwagi, P., Tairo, F., Okao-Okuja, G., Nanvubya, R., Kiiza, L., Kubatko, L., Kehoe, M. A., & Boykin, L. M. (2016). Cassava brown streak virus has a rapidly evolving genome: implications for virus speciation, variability, diagnosis and host resistance. Scientific Reports, 6, 36164. Https://doi.org/10.1038/srep36164
Alicai, T., Omongo, C. A., Maruthi, M. N., Hillocks, R. J., Baguma, Y., Kawuki, R., Bua, A., Otim-Nape, G. W., & Colvin, J. (2007). Re-emergence of cassava brown streak disease in Uganda. Plant Disease, 91, 24-29. https://doi.org/10.10 94/PD-91-0024
FAOSTAT. (2017). FAO database. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC.
Gondwe, F. M. T., Mahungu, N. M., Hillocks, R. J., Moyo, C. C., Soko, M. M., & Benesi, I. R. M. (2003). Economic losses experienced by small-scale farmers in Malawi due to cassava brown streak virus. In: Legg, J.P., Hillocks, R.J. (Eds.), Cassava Brown Streak Disease: Past, Present and Future (pp.28-35). Proceedings of an International Workshop, Mombasa, Kenya, 20-30 October 2002. National Resources International Limited, Aylesford, UK, pp. 28–38. http://www.cpp.uk.com
Hillocks, R. J., Raya, M. D., Mtunda, K., & Kiozia, H. (2001). Effect of brown streak virus disease on yield and quality of cassava in Tanzania. Journal of Phytopathology, 149, 389-394. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-043 4. 2001.tb03868.x
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). (1990). Cassava in Tropical Africa: A reference manual. Ibadan, Nigeria. pp. 61-63. Retrieved from https://newint.iita.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06
Jeremiah, S. C., Ndyetabula, I. L., Mkamilo, G. S., Haji, S., Muhanna, M. M., Chuwa, C., Kasele, S., Bouwmeester, H., Ijumba, J. N., & Legg, J. P. (2015). The Dynamics and Environmental Influence on Interactions Between Cassava Brown Streak Disease and the Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. Journal of Phytopathology, 105, 646–655. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-05-14-0146-R
Kasule, F., Wasswa, P., Mukasa, S.B., Okiror, A. and Mwang’ombe, A.W. (2020). Effective isolation distance for prevention of cassava virus infections in Uganda. African Crop Science Journal, 28, 1-13. https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/acsj.v28i1.1S
Kawuki, R. S., Adiga, G., Orone, J., Alicai, T., Edimu, M., Omara, T., Pariyo, A., Esuma, W., Omongo, C., Bua, A., Kanju, E., & Baguma, Y. (2017). Limits of phytosanitation and host plant resistance towards the control of cassava viruses in Uganda. African Journal of Rural Development, 2, 455-466. Retrieved from http://www.afjrd.org/jos/index.php/afjrd/article/view/193
Kawuki, R. S., Kaweesi, T., Esuma, E., Pariyo, A., Kayondo, S. I., Ozimati, A., ... Baguma, Y. (2016). Eleven years of breeding efforts to combat cassava brown streak disease. Breeding Science Preview, 66, 560-571. http://doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs.16005
Legg, J. P., Jeremiah, S. C., Obiero, H. M., Maruthi, M. N., Ndyetabula, I., Okao-Okuja, G., … Lava, K. P. (2011). Comparing the regional epidemiology of the cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak virus pandemics in Africa. Virus Research, 159, 161-170. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2011.04.018
Legg, J. P., Lava Kumar, P., Makeshkumar, T., Tripathi, L., Ferguson, M., Kanju, E., Ntawuruhunga, P., & Cuellar, W. (2015). Cassava virus diseases: biology, epidemiology, and management. In Loebenstein, Gad, Katis, Nikolaos I. (Eds.), Advances in Virus Research, 91, 85-142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2014.10.001
Legg, J. P., Somado, E. A., Barker, I., Beach, L., Ceballos, H., Cuellar, W. … Fauquet, C. (2014). A global alliance declaring war on cassava viruses in Africa. Food Security, 6, 231-248. http://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-014-0340-x
Maruthi, M. N., Hillocks, R. J., Mtunda, K., Raya, M. D., Muhanna, M., Kiozia, H. … Thresh, J. M. (2005). Transmission of Cassava brown streak virus by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Journal of Phytopathology, 153, 307-312. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0434.2005.00974.x
McQuaid, C. F., Sseruwagi, P., Pariyo, A., & Boscha, F. (2016). Cassava brown streak disease and the sustainability of a clean seed system. Plant Pathology, 65, 299-309. http://doi.org/10.1111/ppa.12453
Mukiibi, D. R., Alicai, T., Kawuki, R., Okao-Okuja, G., Tairo, F., Sseruwagi, P., Ndunguru, J., & Ateka, E. M. (2019). Resistance of advanced cassava breeding clones to infection by major viruses in Uganda. Crop Protection, 115, 104-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2018. 09.015
Mwila, N., Nuwamanya, E., Odong, T. L., Badji, A., Agbahoungba, S., Ibanda, P. A., Mwala, M., Kyamanywa, S., & Rubaihayo, P. R. (2018). Genotype by environment interaction unravels influence on secondary metabolite quality in cassava infested by Bemisia tabaci. Canadian Journal of Agriculture Science, 8, 1-18. https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v10n8p192
Nakabonge, G., Samukoya, C., & Baguma, Y. (2017). Local varieties of cassava: Conservation, cultivation and use in Uganda. Environment, Development and Sustainability. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-017-9997-6
Okpara, D. A., Mbah, E. U., & Chukwu1, E. I. (2014). Assessment of growth and yield of some high-and lowcyanide cassava genotypes in acid ultisols of south eastern Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 13, 651-656. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJN2013.13200
Sseruwagi, P., Sserubombwe, W. S., Legg, J. P., Ndunguru, J., & Tresh, J. M. (2004). Methods of surveying the incidence and severity of cassava mosaic disease and whitefly vector populations on cassava in Africa: a review. Virus Research, 100, 129–142. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2003.12.021
UBOS. (2017). Uganda Bureau of Statistics 2017 Statistical Abstract. Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development, Government of Uganda. Retrieved from https://www.ubos.org.2017.statistical