Agricultural Science <p><em>Agricultural Science</em>&nbsp;(ISSN 2690-5396 e-ISSN 2690-4799) is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal, published by the IDEAS SPREAD&nbsp;in United States. It publishes original research, applied, and educational articles in all areas of agricultural science.&nbsp;Agricultural Science (AS) is quarterly, published in March, June, September and December.<br> <em>Agricultural Science</em> is striving to provide the best platform for researchers and scholars worldwide to exchange their latest findings. Authors are encouraged to submit complete, unpublished, original works that are not under review in any other journals. The journal is published in both print and online versions, and the online version is available for free.</p> IDEAS SPREAD INC en-US Agricultural Science 2690-5396 <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.<br>This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (</p> Interaction Between Two Types of Earthworm and Ageratum on Soil Physicochemical Properties <p>Earthworms are one of the most important soil organisms in tropical ecosystem as they influence mineralogical, structural and microbial composition of soil. The study investigated the effect of interaction between two Nigerian earthworms <em>Eudrilus Eugeniae</em> and <em>Irridodrilus </em>sp and Ageratum species (AG) on soil physicochemical properties in potted experiment. The treatment consisted of 1000g subsoil treated with ageratum (AG); Ageratum + soil inoculated with <em>Eudrilus Eugeniae</em> (AE), Ageratum + soil inoculated with <em>Irridodrilus </em>sp (AI) and control soil not treated (CO). The results of the study showed remarkable differences between the treatments in soil physicochemical properties. The pots inoculated with <em>Eudrilus Eugeniae</em> (AE) relative to other treatments produced high quality ion exchange as evidence from the high (CEC) recorded, enhanced soil aggregation 73% compared to 52% recorded in AI, stabilization of soil aggregates and enhanced availability of nutrient elements by 150% compared to 120% observed in AI. High level of soil pH (9.15) was recorded in AE. AG induced 62% increase in soil erodibility and only 9% increase in availability of soil nutrients. AG was found to be toxic particularly to <em>Irridodrilus</em> whose percentage survival was 0% relative to 67% of <em>Eudrilus Eugeniae</em> whose weight loss was 27%. Ageratum is a bio-pesticide and bio-fertilizer of which its production is simple and cost effective and the efficacy for soil management will require the presence of active soil organisms like earthworms to process Ageratum adequately as was found in this study. The primary materials used in this study are abundantly available and within the reach of farmers. The production and application is eco-friendly, promotes sustainable soil productivity, soil conservation and environmental health. This technology will discourage the use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in the study area if well integrated in crop production activities.</p> Nweke I. A. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-25 2020-03-25 2 2 p1 p1 10.30560/as.v2n2p1 Soil Testing A Panacea to Crop Yield and Agricultural Sustainability – A Case for Farmers of South Eastern, Nigeria <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">Increasing human population is closely related with the increasing demand of food and pressure on available land with the rising demand on fertilizer that has not been sustainable at the farmer’s level. This causes soil fertility decline, nutrient imbalance and low residual effect which are constraint affecting agricultural production in south eastern soils of Nigeria in particular and to large extent in tropical environment. Land available to be used for intensive crop production activities is limited and this demand for adequate soil testing that will x-ray the fertility status of the soil before crop planting. The characteristics and amount of nutrient elements of a soil and soil biodiversity is influenced by climatic conditions, erosion/leaching, drought, cultivation history/land use system, cropping history, kinds of pesticides/herbicides applied, type and methods of inorganic and organic fertilizer applied. Soil testing quantifies the total value of plant nutrient elements available in a sampled soil that will directly promote crop growth and yield. Due to its biophysical, biochemical, biological and physiochemical results, soil testing when appropriately interpreted and applied may be used effectively to promote sustainable crop production and environmental health in a tropical soil like south eastern, Nigeria.</span></p> Nweke, I. A. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-25 2020-03-25 2 2 p7 p7 10.30560/as.v2n2p7 Can Panax Ginseng Aqueous Extract Improve Chilled and Cryopreserved Bull Spermatozoa? <p>This study was to evaluate the influence of Panax ginseng aqueous extract on chilled and frozen-thawed bull sperm quality. Samples of semen were acquired from four bulls through the use of an electro-ejaculator. Extension of the semen was done with tris-egg yolk diluent which was augmented with 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mg/mL Panax ginseng aqueous extract. Diluted chilled portions of the semen were chilled for 6 days at 5 ̊C whereas the frozen semen was cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. Results revealed that in chilled and frozen-thawed semen, the control group, T<sub>1</sub> and T<sub>2</sub> recorded higher percentages in terms of sperm motility and viability in all three groups evaluated compared to others, while the high dose of Panax ginseng aqueous extract in T<sub>6</sub> and T<sub>5</sub> recorded the lowest percentage. Moreover, the values of sperm morphology for chilled and frozen-thawed semen were not significant among the groups. The results of chromatin stability of the present study showed that T<sub>2</sub> and control were higher than for other groups. In conclusion, the low dosage groups (T<sub>1</sub>, T2 and T<sub>3</sub>) which were received (0.25 mg/mL, 0.5 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL, respectively) from Panax ginseng aqueous extract were not significant as compared with the control group while high-dosage groups (T<sub>4</sub>, T<sub>5</sub> and T<sub>6</sub>) which were received (2.5 mg/mL, 5 mg/mL and 7.5 mg/mL, respectively) from Panax ginseng aqueous extract were highly decreased spermatozoa characteristics.</p> Falah Baiee Abd Wahid Haron Murtadha A. AL-mudhafr Innocent Damudu Peter Nurhusien Yimer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-14 2020-07-14 2 2 p15 p15 10.30560/as.v2n2p15 Small-Scale Turkey Farming in Bangladesh: Farming Practices, Profitability and Supply Chain Mapping <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">The study was conducted to know the existing turkey production system, supply chain mapping, and identifying the prospects and problems of turkey rearing in some selected areas of Bangladesh during October 2019 to December 2019. A total of 100 turkey raisers were surveyed following convenience method of sampling technique. The primary data were collected, analyzed accordingly and tabular presentation method was applied with the help of simple descriptive statistical measures e.g. frequency distributions, percentage, sum and means to illustrating the results. Profitability analysis was done on the basis of variable cost, fixed cost, return by using arithmetic means and percentages. The study revealed that 87 male and 13 female respondents were surveyed, of them cent percent found educated. About 56% turkey keeper’s main occupation was business, 27% service and 12% in farming while 88.57% involved with farming as secondary sources of income. Average landholding for homestead, cultivable and non-cultivable was 24.40, 129.71 and 29.47 decimal, respectively. About 59% farms started for commercial purpose, 32% for non-commercial purpose and 9% for both. About 60% respondents kept less than 50 turkeys and only 2% kept 501-1000 turkeys. Among the surveyed farms55% stopped their operation and 45% farms found running their business. Among the running farms cent percent were small-scale group. The average feed intake was 192.13 grams per day per bird at 20 weeks of age. Turkey laid on an average 139 eggs a year irrespective of variety and for hatching poults, the fertility and hatchability rate found between 65 to 100% and 50 to 90%, respectively. About 28% farmers experienced the deaths of turkey because of Cold, Pox, Ranikhet, Bird flu and unknown cases and 69.47% farmers took veterinary advice from Upazila Livestock Hospital and rest from other sources. Farmers to consumers were the most common and widely used marketing channel for egg, chick and adult turkey. The market intermediaries of turkey farm carried out different marketing functions e.g. buying and selling, pricing, transportation, sorting, distribution and market information. The average net return and benefit-cost ratio was BDT 127838.04 and 1.38, respectively for 50 turkeys per year. In the study, turkey rearing found some comparative benefit over chicken and ducks e.g. higher weight gain, forage eater, lower diseases rate and suitability for the country. The main problem of turkey rearing identified as market instability, lack of quality turkey feed, higher feed price, lack of proper marketing facility and training on turkey farming. In conclusion, the small-scale turkey farming could be a viable source of income for the rural people of Bangladesh after taking some remedial steps by the Government of Bangladesh for the aforesaid hindrances faced by the turkey farmers.</span></p> Muhammad Abdur Rashid M Rasheduzzaman MSK Sarker S Faruque Md Salauddin Palash NR Sarker ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 2 2 p28 p28 10.30560/as.v2n2p28 Effect of Foliar Application of Urea on Growth and Yield of Short Durative Lentil Variety (BARI Masur-9) <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">An experiment was conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Jashore, Bangladesh during rabi season of (2019-2020) to evaluate the effect of foliar application of urea on growth and yield of short durative lentil variety (BARI Masur-9). The experiment was conducted in split plot design with three replications where time of urea spraying, P1= at branching stage, P2= at pod initiation stage were distributed in main plots and doses of urea spraying T1= application of 100% recommended fertilizers as basal except urea, T2= application of 100% recommended fertilizers as basal, T3= application of 75% of urea with 100% of other fertilizers as basal and rest of the 25% of urea by spraying, T4= application of 25% of urea with 100% of other fertilizers as basal and rest of the 75% of urea by spraying, T5= application of 50% of urea with 100% of other fertilizers as basal and rest of the 50% of urea by spraying were distributed in sub plots. The highest plant height, number of pods per plant were obtained from application of 75% of urea with 100% of other fertilizers as basal and rest of the 25% of urea spraying at pod initiation stage. The highest seed yield was also found from application of 75% of urea with 100% of other fertilizers as basal and rest of the 25% of urea spraying at pod initiation stage followed by application of 100% recommended fertilizers as basal and application of 50% of urea with 100% of other fertilizers as basal and rest of the 50% of urea by spraying at branching stage. Plant height, pods per plant and days to maturity showed positive correlation with seed yield. On the other hand days to flower and plants per m<sup>2 </sup>has no linear relationship with seed yield. The highest marginal benefit cost ratio (3.29) was recorded from application of 75% of urea with 100% of other fertilizers as basal and rest of the 25% of urea by spraying at pod initiation stage. So based on findings to increase the yield potential of BARI Masur-9 foliar application of urea may be a tool and hence application of 75% of urea with 100% of other fertilizers as basal and rest of the 25% of urea by spraying at pod initiation stage may be consider as the best treatment. </span></p> Md. Shahriar Kobir Md. Harun-Or-Rashid Md. Hafijur Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-20 2020-07-20 2 2 p49 p49 10.30560/as.v2n2p49 Bio-Rational Management of Maize Weevil, Sitophilus Zeamais in Maize (Zea Mays) Seeds <p>Bangladesh is a sub-tropical and humid country. That is why, the infestation of insects during storage is very common here. The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), locally known as “Katta Poka”, is one of the most serious cosmopolitan pest of stored cereal grain, especially of maize (Zea mays L.), in tropical and subtropical regions including Bangladesh. Considering the issue, the study was conducted in the laboratory of Department of Entomology, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) following completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications to evaluate the efficacy of four locally available botanicals and chemicals. The botanicals used were: Neem <em>(Azadirachta indica)</em> leaf, Datura (<em>Datura stramonium</em>) leaf, Nishinda<strong> (</strong><em>Vitex negundo L</em>) leaf and Garlic <em>(Allium sativum </em>L.<em>)</em> tablet powders at three different doses (3, 4 and 5gm)/100g of grain seed against maize weevil. The results revealed that all test materials at 5g doses exhibited higher mortality action against maize weevil while at 3g doses it gave the lowest percentage efficacy. Powdered leaves of neem and datura at 4 and 5gm were showed statistical significant (P&lt;0.01) differences while powdered leaves of nishinda at the similar rates were observed with moderately effectiveness and powdered tablet of garlic gave the lowest mortality rate within 28 days of exposure in all tested doses. These findings suggest that botanical treatments exerted better mortality of maize weevil and reduced maize seed weight loss with higher germination capacity compared to the untreated control. It was also observed that the highest mortality percentage, lowest seed weight loss and highest germination capacity in the seeds which were treated with Sevin 85SP at the rate of 0.25g/100g maize seeds. Maize grains treated with botanicals, indicated that insect reproduction and development were impaired in all botanical pesticides. It is suggested that datura leaf, neem leaf powder can be used as good alternatives to chemical insecticides against <em>S. zeamays</em> due to their higher mortality, lower seed weight losses and higher germination capacity.</p> M. M. Mahabub Alam Masum Ahmad Md. Sohanur Rahman Fakhar Uddin Talukder Md. Israfil Jahan R. Hossain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-22 2020-07-22 2 2 p59 p59 10.30560/as.v2n2p59 Analysis of the Ichtyological Composition of Smoked Fish Sold in the Liberté and Gambela markets in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo <p>The objective of this study is to analyse the ichthyological composition of smoked fish sold in the Liberté and Gambela markets in Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo through a systematic inventory. A 7-month survey was carried out among 200 smoked fish vendors in the two markets in order to extract the information sought. The results obtained show that the sale of smoked fish in Kinshasa is an activity reserved for women with a dominance of married vendors. The smoked fish sold in the two markets are diversified and belong to 6 orders, 13 families, 20 genera and 22 species. Fish belonging to the Siluriformes (30.8%), Characiformes (23.1%), Osteoglossiformes and Perciformes orders (15.4% respectively) are in the majority, while at the family level, Distichodontidae and Mormyridae fish are the most abundant (13.6%). <em>Parachanna spp</em>: 27.6%, <em>Protopterus doloï</em>: 26.3%, <em>Clarias spp</em>: 19.4% and <em>Channalabes apus</em>: 19.1% are the most sold fish species. Households (with 57.6%), restaurateurs (26.4%) and exporters (with 10.2%) are the biggest consumers of smoked fish sold in Kinshasa, which come from the interior of the country and, essentially, from the provinces of Equateur, Mai-Ndombe, Mongala and Sud Ubangi.</p> Willy Lusasi Swana Rosette Manza Kilunda Nadine Bipendu Muamba Clement Munganga Kilingwa Goslin Gafuene Nkosi Victor Pwema Kiamfu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-22 2020-07-22 2 2 p69 p69 10.30560/as.v2n2p69 Participatory Evaluation and Selection of Improved Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum. L) Varieties in Northern Ethiopia <p>Participatory variety selection trials were conducted in 2018 G.C in Laelay-maichew, Tahtay-maichew and Ahferom districts of central zone of Tigrai to evaluate the performance of improved bread wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em>. L) Variety and to assess farmers’ criteria for bread wheat variety selection. Six improved bread wheat varieties (Mekelle-1, Mekelle-2, Ogolcho, Kingbird and Hedasse) including the most popular variety ‘Kakaba’ were used for the study at eighteen farmers (six from each district). The experiment was laid out using randomized complete block design at baby trial with three replications. Analysis of variance revealed a significant difference among the tested varieties for most of the agronomic traits except for kernels per spike and harvest index in all the tested locations. In the preference ranking, farmers used their own traits of interest which were very important in their wheat varieties for selection. Hence, common criteria’s identified by the farmers to select the best varieties were; grain yield, biomass yield, earliness, disease resistance, spike length and seed size. Accordingly direct matrix ranking by farmers showed that Ogolcho was top ranked both at L/maichew and Ahferom followed by Kakaba, however Mekelle-1 was first ranked followed by Kakaba at T/maichew.&nbsp; Therefore farmers of L/maichew and Ahferom were recommended to use Ogolcho and Kakaba, whereas Mekelle-1 was recommended for T/maichew.</p> Berhanu Meles Chekole Nigus Atsede Teklu Yonas G Mariam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-29 2020-07-29 2 2 p80 p80 10.30560/as.v2n2p80 Performance of Wheat in Five Soils of Different Textures under Freshwater and Wastewater Irrigation <p>This study investigated the effects of five soils of different textures on wheat cultivation under irrigation with freshwater (FW) and municipal wastewater (WW). The experimental design was a split-plot with irrigation water quality as main factor and soil texture as sub-factor in three replications. These factors respectively comprised 2 and 5 treatments. Soil texture significantly (p£0.05) influenced plant height, leaf area index (LAI), spike length, number of grains per spike, above ground dry matter (ADM)<strong>, </strong>grain yield, straw yield and biomass yield of wheat in most cases both under FW and WW irrigation. The harvest index (HI) of wheat responded significantly under FW irrigation only. Under FW, treatment T<sub>5</sub> (silt loam) produced the highest grain yield (4.2 t ha<sup>–1</sup>) followed by T<sub>3</sub> (loam-1) (3.1 t ha<sup>–1</sup>); the lowest yield (2.0 t ha<sup>–1</sup>) was in the control treatment, T<sub>1</sub> (loamy sand). Under WW, treatment T<sub>2</sub> (sandy loam) produced the highest grain yield (5.0 t ha<sup>–1</sup>) followed by T<sub>4</sub> (loam-2) (4.5 t ha<sup>–1</sup>) both of which are statistically similar; the lowest yield (3.4 t ha<sup>–1</sup>) was in the control treatment. Treatments T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>4</sub> provided the highest straw yield (5.6 t ha<sup>–1</sup>) and treatment T<sub>2</sub> provided the highest biomass yield (10.6 t ha<sup>–1</sup>), both under WW; both T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>4</sub> produced invariant biomass yields. Compared to other treatments, T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>4</sub> gave statistically similar but significantly higher water productivity with respect to straw and grain yields. The lowest water productivity was in treatment T<sub>1</sub> under both water qualities. The results of this study provided sound criteria in selecting suitable lands for wheat cultivation based on irrigation water quality, specifically in alluvial plains where soil texture is prone to high variations. Also, the observed facts of improved productivity of lower quality coarse-textured soils due to addition of easily available and inexpensive clay would provide guidance to bring unproductive sandy soils under production by clay amendments.</p> Md Abdul Mojid Khadija A Mousumi Tanvir Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-29 2020-07-29 2 2 p89 p89 10.30560/as.v2n2p89 A Critical Review of Value Chain for Irish Potato in Zimbabwe with Specific Regards to the Economic Policy: A Review <p>Potato production and consumption are booming worldwide, greater quantity of it is being processed into food and snacks. It is the most important horticultural crop which is a good substitute for maize to supplement carbohydrates. It was declared a national strategic food security crop on 18 May 2012 by the government of Zimbabwe. This paper critically review the value chain of Irish potato in Zimbabwe with a focus on its any government policy and support with regards to promoting the crop and key stakeholders involved in the value chain. The Irish potato value chain in Zimbabwe has great potential to improve and if well supported, it can contribute to the GDP of the country. This can be done if the government improve on its policy implementation through capacity development of its research and extension workers and more resources have to be availed to this area has showed great potential in terms of marketing and production. The key drivers at production level who will help in ensuring that necessary interventions are carried out to improve long term performance of the Irish potato value chain operate in an enabling environment. This is done by offering incentives to the potato farmers and all the value chain players. The economy of a country is driven by having well thought out policies and interventions that can even subsidies inputs and other raw material required along the value chain.</p> Nyasha Sakadzo Jeremiah Mavugara Ashel Musara ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-16 2020-07-16 2 2 p42 p42 10.30560/as.v2n2p42 Enhancing Soybean Production Through On-Farm Demonstration of Improved Soybean Varieties at Tselemti and Tahtay Adyabo Districts of North-Western Zone Tigray, Ethiopia <p>Soybean is a drought tolerant crop which can grow from low to medium altitudes. In the lowland areas of North-Western Tigray the growing of leguminous crop is very low. To introduce soybean commodity in North-western Tigray, demonstration of improved soybean varieties were conducted in 2018/19. The trail was conducted at Tahtay Adyabo and Tselemti Districts that have a potential for growing the soybean. It was conducted by selecting three Kebelles from the districts. A total of 35 farmers were involved in the intervention. The necessary training was given to the participant farmers and experts. Following this improved seed of Awassa-95 and Gizo varieties at Tahtay Adyabo Districts, and Wegayen and Gizo seed at Tselemti District were offered to participant farmers. Each farmer have been planted a plot size of 0.02 ha for each of the two varieties. The descriptive result shows, Awassa-95 soybean variety has given significantly higher yield at Tahtay Adyabo as compared to Gizo variety. The variety was gave an average yield of 1067 kg/ha and 570 kg/ha respectively Awassa-95 and Gizo varieties. On the other hand an average yield of 1231 kg/ha and 1052 kg/ha, respectively was obtained for Gizo and Wegayen varieties at Tselemti District. This shows that Tselemti District is more better for the cropping of Gizo variety. Moreover, the improved soybean verities (Gizo at Tselemti district and Awassa-95 at Tahtay Adyabo district) were found to be early maturing and best option to moisture stressed areas for the society protein source. Based on the result it is recommended to be popularize Awassa-95 soybean variety at Tahtay Adyabo District and Gizao soybean varieties at Tselemti District to large farmers. Therefore, the research center and the office of agriculture and rural development of the Districts to be popularized the varieties to large number farmers of the areas.</p> Teklemariam Abadi Desale Gebretsadik Abadi Girmay Tesfahun Mekuanint Daniel Desta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 2 2 p99 p99 10.30560/as.v2n2p99 Value Stream Analysis of Fresh-Cut Vegetables in Bangladesh <p>Fresh-cut vegetable is a value added product and its demand shows remarkable growth tendency in Bangladesh. The study specifically examined the roles of value chain actors, value addition through marketing system and evaluating prospects of fresh-cut vegetables. Data obtained from a total of 103 vegetable customers (from Dhaka city), 10 outlet managers of SHWAPNO supermarket (from Dhaka city), 20 vegetable growers and 35 marketing intermediaries by using purposive sampling technique. Among available fresh-cut vegetables, 5 vegetables named taro root, amaranth stem, taro root stem, green pea and bean seed are considered in this study. Using marketing margin and value added models; the results indicate that each actor along the value chain starting from farmer to retailer (supermarket) added a significant amount of value. Processor and supermarket added highest value among all selected fresh-cut vegetables’ value chain actors. There is enough scope to develop specific channel for fresh-cut vegetable marketing. Moreover, the evaluation results of SWOT analysis accurately reflected the fresh-cut vegetable market situation which made it possible to assess the potentiality and identify strategies for development of this market in Bangladesh.</p> Shakila Salam Mousumi Saha Mahmuda Nasrin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-04 2020-08-04 2 2 p112 p112 10.30560/as.v2n2p112 Effects of Dicalcium Phosphate (DCP) and Vitamin E on Growth Performance and Hemato-Biochemical Parameters in Broilers <p>This study was conducted to assess the effect of DCP and vitamin E supplementation on body weight, hematological- (TEC, Hb content, PCV and ESR) and biochemical (AST and ALT) parameters of “Cobb 500” broiler. A total of 20 chicks (14 days old) were reared and randomly divided into four equal groups (n=5). Body weight was measured at each 7 days interval up to the end of the 35 days of experimental period.&nbsp; Group A was considered as control, fed with commercial ration. Group B, C and D were treated with 1 gm DCP per kg feed, 1 ml vitamin E per litre of drinking water, and 1 gm DCP per kg feed plus 1 ml vitamin E per litre of drinking water with commercial ration, respectively from day 14 to day 35. It was observed that DCP and vitamin E supplementation significantly (p&lt;0.01) increased body weight. Moreover, TEC and Hb content increased significantly (p&lt;0.01) in the treated groups as compared to control. Besides, ESR, AST and ALT values decreased significantly (p&lt;0.01) in the treated groups. Therefore, it may be concluded that DCP and vitamin E could be used to improve body weight gain and blood profiles without any detrimental effect to liver and muscle on broilers.</p> Tairan Ikbal Sumitra Saha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-04 2020-08-04 2 2 p104 p104 10.30560/as.v2n2p104 Response of Chickpea (Cicier Arietinium L.) to Rhizobium Inoculation and Blended fertilizer Rates in Laelay Maichew, Central Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia <p>Low soil fertility is one of the limiting factor for low productivity of chickpea in Central zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Field experiment was therefore, conducted for two consecutive years (2016-2017) in Laelay Maichew (Hatsebo) to evaluate the effects of NPSB fertilizer and rhizobium inoculation on yield and yield components of chickpea. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three replications. Rhizobium inoculation was assigned to the main plots with two levels (with and without <em>rhizobium</em> inoculation) and NPSB fertilizer rates in sub plot with seven levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>NPSB). Data collected were subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SAS software. A combined analysis of variance showed a significant interaction effects of NPSB and<em> rhizobium</em> inoculation on chickpea yield and yield components (P&lt;0.05) across the two years. The highest number of pods per plant (76.8) was recorded from 125 kg ha<sup>‑1</sup> NPSB along with <em>rhizobium</em> inoculation and the highest grain yields were obtained from 150 kg ha<sup>‑1 </sup>(3609 kg ha<sup>‑1</sup>) and 125 kg ha<sup>‑1 </sup>NPSB (3514 kg ha<sup>‑1</sup>) along with <em>rhizobium</em> inoculation. Maximum marginal rate of return (4106.68%) was gained when chickpea was inoculated with <em>rhizobium</em> and 125 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>NPSB application. From the present results it could be concluded that 125 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>NPSB along with <em>rhizobium</em> inoculation seeds would be the optimum treatment combination for enhancing chickpea yield and better profitability in soils with low level of available plant nutrients (NPSB).</p> Kiros Wolday Atsede Teklu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-11 2020-08-11 2 2 p122 p122 10.30560/as.v2n2p122 Human Endoparasites Present in the Digestive Tracts of Two Species of Cichlidae Fish: Oreochromis Niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Tilapia Tholloni (Sauvage, 1884) Caught in the Malebo Pool (Congo River), D.R. Congo <p>Parasitic diseases of fish are very rarely highlighted in comparison with certain parasitic diseases transmitted to humans through animals or plants such as echinococcosis, bilharziasis or fasciolosis. The aim of this study is to provide knowledge on endoparasites of the human digestive tract that also infest the digestive tracts of two species of Cichlidae fish: <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> Linnaeus, 1758 and <em>Tilapia tholloni</em> Sauvage, 1884 caught in the Congo River (Malebo Pool). Microscopic observations were made on 42 specimens of <em>O. niloticus</em> fish and 42 of <em>T. tholloni</em>. The results obtained showed that the digestive tracts of fish <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> host 8 species of parasites grouped in 6 genera, 6 families, 4 classes and 2 branches. The species belonging to the phylum Nemathelminths branch were more abundant (58.8%) than Plathelminths (41.2%). Species <em>Trichurus trichiura</em> (23.5%), <em>Ascaris lumbricoides</em> (20.6%), <em>Strongyloides stercoralis</em> (14.7%), <em>Schistosoma haematobium</em> and <em>Schistosoma intercarlantum</em> (11.8%) were the most frequently observed. On the other hand, microscopic analyses of the digestive tract of <em>Tilapia tholloni</em> revealed the presence of five species of parasites belonging to 3 branches, 4 classes, 4 families and 4 genera. Nemathelminthes (58.3%) and Plathelminthes (25%) are the most represented phylum than Amoebians (16.7%). <em>Enterobius vermicularis</em> (33.3%), <em>Trichocephalus trichuris</em> (25%), <em>Schistosoma haematobium</em> (20.8%) and <em>Entemoeba hystolica</em> (16.7%) were frequently observed. These results confirm the presence of endoparasites in congolese freshwater fish. This information is important in setting up a strategy to protect fish and consumers against these pathogens.</p> Victor Pwema Kiamfu Jeff Nakweti K Willy Lusasi Swana Santos Kavumbu Mutanda Clement Munganga Kilingwa Theo Mondo Mapasi John Tembeni M. Mbomba Bekeli N‘seu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-11 2020-08-11 2 2 p129 p129 10.30560/as.v2n2p129 Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizers on Dekoko (Pisum sativum var.abyssinicum A. Braun) Yield and Yield related traits <p>A field experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of different nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer levels on dekoko (<em>Pisum sativum </em>var<em>.abyssinicum</em> A.Braun) yield and yield components as well as to establish the net benefit at each fertilizer levels. The Experiment was conducted at Mekelle university Endayesus campus in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia in 2013/14. It was laid out in a randomized complete block design with four blocks. It comprises four nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer treatments combinations. Viz., Control (N0P0), 30 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> and 30 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup> (N1P1), 60 kg N ha<sup>-1 </sup>and 60 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5 </sub>ha<sup>-1</sup>(N2P2) and 90 kg N ha<sup>-1 </sup>and 90 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup> (N3P3).The highest yield (2114.55 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), biomass (5312.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency (4.58 kg kg-¹) and maximum marginal rate of return (499%) were obtained when treated with N2P2. From the present results it could be concluded that 60 kg N ha<sup>-1 </sup>and 60 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5 </sub>ha<sup>-1</sup> fertilizer rate would be optimum treatment combination for enhancing dekoko yield and yield components, NP use efficiency, and economic profitability. Therefore, application of 60 kg N ha<sup>-1 </sup>and 60 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5 </sub>ha<sup>-1</sup> is recommended for better productivity and profitability of dekoko at low soil fertility levels.</p> Kiros Wolday Araya Alemie Yemane Tsehaye ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-11 2020-08-11 2 2 p141 p141 10.30560/as.v2n2p141 Combined Effects of Vernalization and Gibberellic Acid on Quality Seed Production of Summer Onion (Allium cepa L.) <p>The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vernalization and GA3 on seed yield and reproductive quality of summer onion. There were three vernalization treatments viz., no vernalization (control), vernalization at 5°C for 14 days and vernalization at 10<sup>°</sup>C for 14 days and four GA3 treatment viz., 0, 50, 100 and 150 ppm. The two-factor experiment was conducted in the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Combination between vernalization and GA3 was significant on the parameters such as plant height, number of leaves plant<sup>-1</sup>, the highest number of flowering stalk, number of umbels plant<sup>-1</sup>, number of bud umbel<sup>-1</sup>, percent flowering at 45 and 60 DAP, number of seeds umbel<sup>-1</sup>, weight of seeds umbel<sup>-1</sup>, weight of seeds plant<sup>-1</sup>, weight of seeds plot<sup>-1</sup>, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, number of fruits umbel<sup>-1</sup>, percent of fruit set umbel<sup>-1</sup>and percent germination. Combined effect of vernalization &amp; GA3 was considered the highest seed yield (280.42 kgha<sup>-1</sup>) was obtained from vernalization at 5<sup>°</sup>C for 14 days with 100 ppm GA3. The lowest values of all the parameters were recorded in the control treatment. No limitation is found in the present experiment.&nbsp; Combined use of proper vernalization of mother bulb and suitable concentration of gibberellic acid can be one possible way to expand onion production during the summer.</p> Lamia Khatun Md. Rezaul Karim Fakhar Uddin Talukder Md. Sohanur Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-26 2020-10-26 2 2 p148 p148 10.30560/as.v2n2p148 Numerical Analysis of Spreading Process of Ellipsoidal Spraying Droplet Impacting on Superhydrophobic Surface <p>Agricultural spray deposition is especially important for pesticide application because low efficiency can lead to environmental pollution, poor biological efficiency and economic loss. The deposition of pesticide spray on the leave surfaces is related to the impact kinetic behavior of droplets. But after considering the deformation of the droplet, how impingement will affect the deposition is an interesting research. In this study, a superhydrophobic surface was used to replace the plant surface that the pesticide droplets may affect. An interface tracking method was proposed to characterize the impingement dynamics behaviors of different ellipsoid droplets impacting on the surface. The maximum spreading coefficient and time of ellipsoidal droplets increased with the raise of their size. A lower sized droplet has a faster spreading rate, while the center of a higher sized droplet is thinner. As the velocity of pesticide increases, maximum spreading coefficient of droplet increases with a decrease in the maximum spreading time of droplet. The simulation results can contribute to provide theoretical basis for improving spray efficiency.</p> Qingmin Pan Deyu Tu Baohong Tong Yongguang Hu Tao Wang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-05 2020-11-05 2 2 p160 p160 10.30560/as.v2n2p160 Kasule, F Farmer Preference of Cassava Cultivars in Eastern Uganda: A Choice Beyond Disease Resistance <p>The cassava breeding program in Uganda has released many improved cultivars resistant/tolerant to cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD). However, many farmers have continued to use cultivars that are susceptible to these major viral diseases but with diverse attributes. There is a need to understand farmers’ cassava cultivar attribute preferences and CBSD, CMD prevalence on the preferred cultivars. A total of 150 cassava farmer fields (74 in Bukedea district and 76 in Kumi district) located in eastern Uganda were evaluated for farmers’ cultivars and attribute preferences, as well as prevalence of CBSD and CMD on the farmer selected cultivars. The eastern region was of interest in the study, due to it-being the major cassava producing area in the country. In addition, 30 cassava plants of different genotypes were chosen randomly along transects of each field and assessed for CBSD/CMD incidence and severity on preferred cultivars. Results showed that more than 64% of the farmers in eastern Uganda preferred NASE 03 due to its sweet taste and high yields, followed by NASE 14 (21%) because of its high yields. There was a significant (P≤0.001) correlation between cassava cultivars preferred and CBSD severity (r = -0.56), CBSD incidence (r = -0.53), CMD severity (r = -0.51) and CMD incidence (r = -0.39). In corroboration, the most preferred cultivar, NASE 03 was found most susceptible to CBSD and CMD in both Bukedea and Kumi districts with CBSD incidence of 62.2% and 52.7% and CMD incidence of 56.9% and 34.3% respectively. The results showed that CBSD and CMD are prevalent on farmer preferred cassava cultivars, and that farmer cultivar preference depends not only on disease resistance but also other attributes.</p> Kasule Faizo Peter Wasswa Settumba Brasio Mukasa Anthony Okiror Selma Ndapewa Nghituwamhata Evalyne Chepkoech Rono Clever Mukuze Agnes Wakesho Mwang'ombe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-02 2020-12-02 2 2 p169 p169 10.30560/as.v2n2p169 Effect of Curcumin (Curcuma longa) and Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Hematology Values of Broilers <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supplemented curcumin (<em>Curcuma longa</em>) and red ginger (<em>Zingiber officinale</em>) on hematological values of broilers. Three hundred twenty one-day-old broilers were randomly distributed into 8 treatment groups with 4 replicates (pens) of 10 chicks each. The treatment diets were control groups (T01=basal diet and T02=basal diet + bacitracin), and treatment diets supplemented with curcumin (C1, C2, and C3), and supplanted with ginger (Z1, Z2 and Z3). Results showed that PVCs and hemoglobin level of the chickens fed treatment diets increased significantly (P&lt;0.05) compare to the control diets, and the erythrocytes of the chickens fed diet supplemented with ginger increased significantly (P&lt;0.05) compared to the control in period I (21 days of age) but no significant differences in Period II (34 days of age). Furthermore, treatment diets had no effect on erythrocyte indices of MCHC and MCV (P&gt;0.05). However, dietary inclusion of the addition of ginger significantly decreased MCH in period I (P&lt;0.05), but no significant differences were observed in period II. Furthermore, the treatment diets had significantly lower leucocytes and heterophils/lymphocytes ratios (P&lt;0.05) than the control diets, but no significant differences were investigated in the percentage of differential leucocytes of eosinophils and basophils. In conclusion, the use of curcumin and ginger up to the level of 1.5% indicated the potentcy of improving the general health status of broilers. They have been able to improve the hematological values, and reduce the stress level of the chickens.</p> Maksudi Maksudi Fahmida Manin Sri Wigati Anie Insulistyawati Nurbani Aziz Pudji Rahayu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-04 2020-12-04 2 2 p178 p178 10.30560/as.v2n2p178