Agricultural Science https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/as <p><em>Agricultural Science</em>&nbsp;is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal, published by the IDEAS SPREAD INC. It publishes original research, applied, and educational articles in all areas of agricultural science.<br> <em>Agricultural Science</em> is striving to provide the best platform for researchers and scholars worldwide to exchange their latest findings. Authors are encouraged to submit complete, unpublished, original works that are not under review in any other journals. The journal is published in both print and online versions, and the online version is available for free.</p> IDEAS SPREAD INC en-US Agricultural Science <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.<br>This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).</p> Gamma Radiated Wheat for Combating Devastating Blast Disease (Magnaporthe Oryzae Triticum) In Bangladesh https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/as/article/view/359 <p>Wheat is a global food security crop, providing 20 percent of protein and calories consumed worldwide and up to 50 percent in developing countries. It is the second most important cereal next to rice in Bangladesh and playing an important role in attaining food security. But wheat is very susceptible to diseases that often place major biological constraints on production. In 2016, a new wheat disease called “blast” was identified by wheat scientists for the first time in Bangladesh. Wheat blast disease caused by <em>Magnaporthe oryzae triticum </em>is causing enormous yield loss worldwide. At present, control of blast disease is a great challenge due to frequently introduction of new races of the pathogen. The present investigation focused on screening M2 population of gamma radiated wheat where four doses of radiations viz. 150 Gy, 200 Gy, 250 Gy, and 300 Gy were applied to the seeds of three wheat varieties viz. BARI Gom-25, BARI Gom-29 and BARI Gom-30 from a Cobalt 60 source (Gamma Chamber 5000). The irradiated seeds were sown in farmers’ fields of a wheat blast disease-prone area Chandbil, Meherpur Sadar. All the doses of irradiation showed a significant effect on incidence and severity of wheat blast disease in all three varieties. Among the treatments 200 Gy and 250 Gy reduced the disease effectively. Molecular detection of <em>Magnaporthe oryzae triticum</em> was also done using specific primer. The size of the band (350 bp) confirms the infection of M2 families by <em>Magnaporthe oryzae triticum</em>. Development of wheat blast resistant variety through irradiation could be a potential substitute to replace the available chemical control methods and it is described as eco-friendly, sustainable and nonhazardous strategy to reduce wheat yield loss due to blast disease.</p> MD.Harun -Or-Rashid M. Bahadur Meah Md. Imtiaz Uddin Sharif Ahmed Md. Abul Kashem ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-03 2019-12-03 1 1 p1 p1 10.30560/as.v1n1p1 Comparative Study of Underground Pit Grain Storage System through Use of Different Lining Materials https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/as/article/view/388 <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">Sorghum occupies highest area of cultivation in East and West Hararghe of Ethiopia. Farmers in the area are poor and do not afford an advanced storage systems. Hence, storage is done mainly in underground pit storage with different lining materials. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating those different lining materials in maintaining the sorghum quality. Four different lining materials which are commonly used by the farmers (mud/straw/cow dung mixture (3:3:1 ratio), plastic (thick rubberized canvas), chaff and cement) were used. Ten pits (duplicated), flask shaped with 1 m depth and 1 m diameter with a capacity of about two quintals (200 kg) were constructed. The finding in this comparative study is that, among all underlining materials, underground pit with plastic lining material was good barrier compared to all linings. Moisture migration to the grain increased in each month in all lining materials and the least was recorded in plastic lining. Germination capacity and thousand grain weight were reduced significantly in each material except plastic lining which showed the least change compared to the others. Fungi infestation was also increased in all underground pits with different lining materials. However, lower infestation was found in plastic and cement linings. Based on the quality measurements, plastic lining showed the least change in grain quality compared to the others. It can be concluded that, since the farmers can’t afford advanced storage system, it can be recommended to use plastic lining material among the existing lining materials.</span></p> Anbesse Girma Elias Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 1 1 p11 p11 10.30560/as.v1n1p11 Evaluation of Drought Tolerance Indices and Nitrogen Fertilization for Some Groundnut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) Genotypes https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/as/article/view/412 <p>Water is essential to maximize crop yield and quality. This natural resource has assumed huge importance, especially in the warmest areas, where drought and environmental degradation has affected agricultural production. In order to identify drought tolerance of some groundnut genotypes and to investigate the relationships between seed yield, quality and drought tolerance indices a study was made using 10 promising genotypes. The experiment was carried out during 2014-2017 and sowed under randomized block design with four replicates. It included three factors: two levels of irrigation (a<sub>1</sub> – non - irrigated and a<sub>2</sub> - irrigated), two levels of fertilization (b<sub>1</sub> – non-fertilized and b<sub>2</sub> - 100 active Nitrogen/ha) and genotype (C<sub>1</sub>-C<sub>10</sub>). Seed yield depending on the influence of the factor, varied from 535.95 Kg/ha (non-irrigated) to 2020.95 Kg/ha (irrigated); from 1055.30 Kg/ha (non-fertilized) to 1501 Kg/ha (fertilized) and from 1111.30 Kg/ha to 1388 Kg/ha depending on genotype. Same influence factors for protein content varied from 25.65% (irrigated) to 28.61% (non-irrigated); from 26.33% (non-fertilized) to 27.93% (fertilized) and from 25.59% to 28.52% depending on genotype. Stress susceptibility index (SSI) varied from 0.964 to 1.040; Stress Tolerance Index (STI) from 0.138 to 0.435; Mean Productivity (MP) from 883.5 to 1616.0; Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) from 750.3 to 1332.7; Tolerance index (TOL) from 933.0 to 1844.0; Harmonic Mean (HM) from 637.2 to 1099.0; Yield Index (YI) 0.777 to 1.308 and Yield Stability Index (YSI) from 0.236 to 0.309. High values of SSI, STI, YI, DI, RDI and SSPI indicate drought tolerance and those variants present high stability.</p> Iancu Paula Păniță Ovidiu Soare Marin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-23 2019-12-23 1 1 p18 p18 10.30560/as.v1n1p18 Retrospective Study on the Occurrence of Reportable Priority Cattle Diseases in Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ Regional State, Southern Ethiopia https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/as/article/view/436 <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">A retrospective study was conducted between October 2016 and March 2017 in Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPRS) to identify major reportable cattle disease outbreaks. The retrospective study was based on a nine years (2007-2015) cattle disease outbreak report data retrieved from the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries (MoLF) data bases. The retrospective study revealed that of the 15,840 disease outbreak reports expected from SNNPRS, only 1,578 (11%) reports were submitted to MoLF during the nine years’ time. According to the data retrieved from MoLF, a total of 1,496 cattle disease outbreaks with 44,646 morbidity cases and 4,709 mortalities were recorded in SNNPRS over the nine years period. The outbreaks were caused by blackleg (40.6%), hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) (26.3%), lumpy skin disease (LSD) (16%), anthrax (11.4%), foot and mouth disease (FMD) (4.7%), contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) (0.8%) and rabies (0.3%) in decreasing order of their proportion. LSD was responsible for the highest proportion of morbidity cases (35.9%) followed by FMD (26.2%) while blackleg and LSD were the leading causes of cattle mortalities, which accounted for 31% and 30.2% of the deaths recorded, respectively. In contrast, the lowest number of outbreaks, morbidity and mortality of cattle was caused by rabies. Disease outbreaks were occurred in all the seasons of the year; however, relatively higher number of outbreaks (30.7%) was recorded in early dry season (September to November). </span></p> <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">In conclusion, the retrospective study has shown a very low level of disease outbreak reporting rate in SNNPRS, which may be due to misreporting or no outbreak of diseases. </span></p> Semayat Oyda Rahmeto Abebe Bekele Megersa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 1 1 p30 p30 10.30560/as.v1n1p30