Small-Scale Turkey Farming in Bangladesh: Farming Practices, Profitability and Supply Chain Mapping
The study was conducted to know the existing turkey production system, supply chain mapping, and identifying the prospects and problems of turkey rearing in some selected areas of Bangladesh during October 2019 to December 2019. A total of 100 turkey raisers were surveyed following convenience method of sampling technique. The primary data were collected, analyzed accordingly and tabular presentation method was applied with the help of simple descriptive statistical measures e.g. frequency distributions, percentage, sum and means to illustrating the results. Profitability analysis was done on the basis of variable cost, fixed cost, return by using arithmetic means and percentages. The study revealed that 87 male and 13 female respondents were surveyed, of them cent percent found educated. About 56% turkey keeper’s main occupation was business, 27% service and 12% in farming while 88.57% involved with farming as secondary sources of income. Average landholding for homestead, cultivable and non-cultivable was 24.40, 129.71 and 29.47 decimal, respectively. About 59% farms started for commercial purpose, 32% for non-commercial purpose and 9% for both. About 60% respondents kept less than 50 turkeys and only 2% kept 501-1000 turkeys. Among the surveyed farms55% stopped their operation and 45% farms found running their business. Among the running farms cent percent were small-scale group. The average feed intake was 192.13 grams per day per bird at 20 weeks of age. Turkey laid on an average 139 eggs a year irrespective of variety and for hatching poults, the fertility and hatchability rate found between 65 to 100% and 50 to 90%, respectively. About 28% farmers experienced the deaths of turkey because of Cold, Pox, Ranikhet, Bird flu and unknown cases and 69.47% farmers took veterinary advice from Upazila Livestock Hospital and rest from other sources. Farmers to consumers were the most common and widely used marketing channel for egg, chick and adult turkey. The market intermediaries of turkey farm carried out different marketing functions e.g. buying and selling, pricing, transportation, sorting, distribution and market information. The average net return and benefit-cost ratio was BDT 127838.04 and 1.38, respectively for 50 turkeys per year. In the study, turkey rearing found some comparative benefit over chicken and ducks e.g. higher weight gain, forage eater, lower diseases rate and suitability for the country. The main problem of turkey rearing identified as market instability, lack of quality turkey feed, higher feed price, lack of proper marketing facility and training on turkey farming. In conclusion, the small-scale turkey farming could be a viable source of income for the rural people of Bangladesh after taking some remedial steps by the Government of Bangladesh for the aforesaid hindrances faced by the turkey farmers.
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