Gamma Radiated Wheat for Combating Devastating Blast Disease (Magnaporthe Oryzae Triticum) In Bangladesh
Wheat is a global food security crop, providing 20 percent of protein and calories consumed worldwide and up to 50 percent in developing countries. It is the second most important cereal next to rice in Bangladesh and playing an important role in attaining food security. But wheat is very susceptible to diseases that often place major biological constraints on production. In 2016, a new wheat disease called “blast” was identified by wheat scientists for the first time in Bangladesh. Wheat blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae triticum is causing enormous yield loss worldwide. At present, control of blast disease is a great challenge due to frequently introduction of new races of the pathogen. The present investigation focused on screening M2 population of gamma radiated wheat where four doses of radiations viz. 150 Gy, 200 Gy, 250 Gy, and 300 Gy were applied to the seeds of three wheat varieties viz. BARI Gom-25, BARI Gom-29 and BARI Gom-30 from a Cobalt 60 source (Gamma Chamber 5000). The irradiated seeds were sown in farmers’ fields of a wheat blast disease-prone area Chandbil, Meherpur Sadar. All the doses of irradiation showed a significant effect on incidence and severity of wheat blast disease in all three varieties. Among the treatments 200 Gy and 250 Gy reduced the disease effectively. Molecular detection of Magnaporthe oryzae triticum was also done using specific primer. The size of the band (350 bp) confirms the infection of M2 families by Magnaporthe oryzae triticum. Development of wheat blast resistant variety through irradiation could be a potential substitute to replace the available chemical control methods and it is described as eco-friendly, sustainable and nonhazardous strategy to reduce wheat yield loss due to blast disease.
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