Effect of Adding Different Levels of Duckweed (Lemna minor Linn.) in the Diet on Live Body Weight, Hematological Traits and Production Cost of Free-range Chickens, Gallus domesticus Linn. (Black Austrolorp x Barred Playmouth Rock)
The present study was conducted at Bataan Peninsula State University Abucay Campus to evaluate the growth performance and hematological profile of Gallus domesticus Linn. (Black Austrolorp x Barred Playmouth Rock) chicken fed formulated diets of varying inclusions of lesser duckweed (Lemna minor Linn.). Three formulated treatments diets of homogenous crude protein level were prepared: 0% duckweed (control), 10% duckweed, and 15% duckweed inclusion. Five chickens (average weight 202.5 g) per replicate were reared in a single factorial experiment and the feeding trial was carried-out for three months. Chicken fed diet containing 15% duckweed meal treatment had significantly (P < 0.05) higher body weight (1,425.88 ± 55.24 g) compared to chicken fed normal diet (1,223.48 ± 174.47 g). Mean cost to produce a kilogram of meat was significantly cheaper in the treated diets (F = 4.82; P < 0.05). Mean values of hematological variables were not significantly different among treatments.
Anderson, K. E., Lowman, Z., Stomp, A. M., & Chang, J. (2011). Duckweed as a feed ingredient in laying hen diets and its effect on egg production and composition. International Journal of Poultry Science, 10(1), 4–7.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists [AOAC]. (1975). Official methods of analysis. (12th ed.). AOAC, Washington, DC.
Culley Jr, D. D., Rejmánková, E., Květ, J., & Frye, J. B. (1981). Production, chemical quality and use of duckweeds (Lemnaceae) in aquaculture, waste management, and animal feeds. Journal of the World Mariculture Society, 12(2), 27–9.
Dozier, W. A., Kidd, M. T., & Corzo, A. (2008). Dietary amino acid responses of broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 17(1), 157–167. https://doi.org/10.3382/japr.2007-00071.
Du T. H., Linh, N. Q., Everts, H., & Beynen, A. C. (2009). Ileal and total tract digestibility in growing pigs fed cassava root meal and rice bran with inclusion of cassava leaves, sweed potato vine, duckweed and stylosanthes foliage. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 21(12). Retrieved from http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd21/1/hang21012.htm.
Espino, M. T. M., & Bellotindos, L. M. B. (2020). Comparative global warming potential as environment protection criteria of production systems: a case study of Philippine chicken meat sector. Applied Environmental Research, 42(2), 13–26.
Flores, R. C., Corpuz, M. N. C., & Salas, J. M. (2016). Adoption of aquasilviculture technology: a positive approach for sustainable fisheries and mangrove wetland rehabilitation in Bataan, Philippines. International Journal of Food Engineering, 2(1), 79–83.
Haustein, A. T., Gillman, R. H., Skillicorn, P. W., Hannan, H., Dias, F., Guevana, V., Vergara, V., Gastanaduy, A., & Gillman, J. B. (1994). Performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing duckweed (Lemna gibba). Journal of Agricultural Science, 122(2), 288–289.
Islam, K. M. S., Shahjalal, M., Tareque, A. M. M., & Howlider, M. A. R. (1997). Complete replacement of dietary fish-meal by duckweed and soybean meal on the performance of broilers. Asian Australatian Journal of Animal Science, 10(6), 629–634.
Khang, N. T. K., & Ogle, B. (2004). Effects of dietary protein level and a duckweed supplement on the growth rate of local breed chicks. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 16(54). http://www.cipav.org.co/lrrd/lrrd16/8/khan16054.htm.
Krauze, M. (2021). Phytobiotics, a Natural Growth Promoter for Poultry. In Babinszky, L., Oliveira, J., & Santos, E. M., (2nd ed), Advanced Studies in the 21st Century Animal Nutrition. IntechOpen: London, UK.
Kusina, J., Mutisi, C., Govere, W., Mhona, R., Murenga, K., & Ndamba J. (1999). Evaluation of duckweed (Lemna minor) as a feed ingredient in the finisher diets of broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Science in South Africa, 5(1), 25–34.
Leng, R. A., Stambolie, J. H., & Bell, R. (1995). Duckweed-a potential high-protein feed resource for domestic animals and fish. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 7(1), 1–11.
Mananghaya, K. M. V. (2017). Enhancing your pasture for sustainable native chicken production. Retrieved from http://www. pcaarrd.dost.gov.ph/home/portal/index.php/quick-information-dispatch/2866-enhancing-your-pasture-for-sustainable-native-chicken-production.
Mbagwu, I. G. & Adeniji, H. A. (1988). The nutritional content of duckweed (Lemna paucieostata Hegelim) in the Kainji lake area, Nigeria. Aquatic Botany, 29, 357–368.
Olorunfemi, T. O. S., Aderibigbe, F. M., Alese, B. K., & Fasakin, E. A. (2006). Utilization of duckweed (Lemna paucicostata) in least-cost feed formulation for broiler starter: a linear programming analysis. Information Technology Journal, 5, 166–171.
Paguia, H. M. (2021). Evaluation of corn-duckweed Meal (Lemna minor) based diets as practical ration for native chicken (Gallus domesticus Linn.). Journal of Advanced Agricultural Technologies, 8(2), 30–34.
Paguia, H. M., Rubiano, M. F. O., & Corpuz, M. N. C. (2020). Community-based diversified farming systems improve the profitability of goat-rice-vermicompost production in Bataan, Philippines. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research, 9(3), 158–163.
Paguia, H. M., Tuazon, J. P. B., Rosano, M. M., Abella, E., Cabutaje, A., Lopez, R., & Corpuz, M. N. C. (2019). Effects of community-based farming on the productivity and profitability of mango (Mangifera indica, Linn.) in Bataan, Philippines. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research. 7(6), 605–609.
Philippines Statistics Authority [PSA]. 2021. Chicken Status Report October to December 2020. Retrieved from https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/1_%5BONSrevcleared%5D%20SR_Q4%202020%20Chicken%20Situation%20Report_signed.pdf.
Porath, D., Hepher B., & Koton, A. (1979). Duckweed as an aquatic crop: Evaluation of clones for aquaculture. Aquatic Botany, 7, 273–278.
Van der Spiegel, M., Noordam, M. Y., & Van der Fels‐Klerx, H. J. (2013). Safety of novel protein sources (insects, microalgae, seaweed, duckweed, and rapeseed) and legislative aspects for their application in food and feed production. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 12(6), 662–678.
Vinzon, J. D. C., Gigante, E. J. V., Manliclic, A. D. M., & Corpuz, M. N. C. (2021). Green microalgae, Chlorella sorokiniana promotes the growth of Chinese cabbage, Brassica rapa chinensis (L.) Hanelt. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research, 9(4), 265–270.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).