Infant and Under Five Mortality Rates in Nigeria: An Impact Analysis of Macroeconomic Conditions
Over the years, the rising unfriendly macroeconomic environment is a contributing factor to the infant and under-five mortality rate in Nigeria. The study investigated the role of macroeconomic conditions on infant and under-five mortality rates in Nigeria for the period 1986–2017 using the fully modified OLS technique. The results show that the unfriendly macroeconomic policy environment such as the instability of inflation rate, unemployment and exchange rate enhanced the increased level of infant and under-five mortality rate in Nigeria. The study recommends that the authority should adopt more pro-growth policies that can ensure and maintain sound domestic macroeconomic policies to stem child mortality rate and promote economic growth through investment in food production and related investment in health. Most importantly, macroeconomic policies and institutions are highly needed to be strengthened in order to have a friendly macroeconomic environment which will in turn improve the population health of the country which can enhance sustainable and long term dietary as well as nutritional pattern of young age children and adult.
Adeyele, I. T., & Ofoegbu, D. I. (2013). Infant and Child Mortality in Nigeria: An Impact Analysis. International Journal of Economic Practices and Theories, 3(2).
Agüero, J. M., & Valdivia, M. (2010). The Permanent Effects of Recessions on Child Health: Evidence from Peru. Estudios Económicos, 25(1), 247-274.
Akinlo, A. E., & Odusanya, I. A. (2016). Effects of Food Prices on Under-five and Infant Mortality Rates in Sub-Saharan Africa. African Journal of Economic Review, IV(1).
Anand, S., & Ravallion, M. (1993). Human Development in Poor Countries: On the Role of Private Incomes and Public Services. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 1(3), 133-150. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.7.1.133
Anderson, I., Axelson, H., & Tan, B. K. (2011). The other crisis: The Economics and Financing of Maternal, Newborn and Child Health in Asia. Health Policy and Planning, 26, 288-297. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czq067
Ang, Cruz., Pural., & Rosete. (2017). The Economic Determinants of Child Mortality in the Philippines: A Panel Analysis of 16 Regions. Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research.
Baird, S., Friedman, J., & Schady, N. (2009). Aggregate Income Shocks and Infant Mortality in the Developing World. Policy Research Working Paper 4346 The World Bank: Washington; 2007.
Balhotra, S. (2007). Fatal fluctuations? Cyclicality in infant mortality in India, IZA 2007; Discussion Paper No. 3086.
Bourne, P. A. (2012). Under-Five Mortality, Health and Selected Macroeconomic Variables: The Children behind the Digits. Epidemiology Open Access. https://doi.org/10.5455/jbh.20120426083928
Christian, P. (2010). Impact of the Economic Crisis and Increase in Food Prices on Child Mortality: Exploring Nutritional Pathways. The Journal of Nutrition, 140, 177-181. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.109.111708
Cornia, G. A., Rosignoli, S., & Tiberti, L. (2011). The Impact of The Food and Financial Crises on Child Mortality: The Case of Sub-Saharan Africa, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.
Freire, C., & Kajiura, N. (2011). Impact of Health Expenditure on Achieving the Health-Related mdgs. MPDD Working Papers Macroeconomic Policy and Development Division.
Friedman, Jed, & Norbert, S. (2009). How Many More Infants are Likely to Die in Africa as a Result of the Global Financial Crisis? Unpublished manuscript, The World Bank. https://doi.org/10.1596/1813-9450-5023
Gaiha, R. (2012). On hunger and child mortality in India, Journal of African Economies, 47(1), 3-17. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021909611427015
Lee, S., Lim, J., Lee, H., & Park, C. (2013). Food prices and Population Health in Developing Countries: An Investigation of the Effects of the Food Crisis Using a Panel Analysis. ADB Economics Working Paper Series No. 374. Manila, Philippines: Asian Development Bank. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2323143
Mosley, W. H., & Chen, L. C. (1984). An Analytical Framework for the Study of Child Survival in Developing Countries. Population and Development Review, 10, 25-45. https://doi.org/10.2307/2807954
Obayelu, A. E. (2010). Global Food Price Increases and Nutritional Status of Nigerians: The Determinants, Coping Strategies. Policy Responses and Implications, ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science. Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN).
Paxson, C., & Schady, N. (2010). Does Money Matter? The Effects of Cash Transfers on Child Development in Rural Ecuador. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 59(1), 187-229. https://doi.org/10.1086/655458
Renton, A., Wall, M., & Lintott, J. (2012). Economic Growth and Decline in Mortality in Developing Countries: An Analysis of The World Bank Development Datasets. Public Health, 26, 551-560. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2012.03.011
Ruhm, C. L. (2004). Macroeconomic Conditions, Health and Mortality NBER Working Paper Series. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w11007 https://doi.org/10.3386/w11007
Schnept, R. (2013). Consumers and Food Price Inflation, Congressional Research Service Report, R40545, The Us Congress.
Seid, E. S (2012). Macroeconomic Conditions and Infant Mortality. In Ethiopia: A Survival Analysis, Lund University (School of Economics and Management) unpublished Research Mater Thesis.
Sen, A. (1999). Development as Freedom, Oxford University Press.
Summers, L. H., & Pritchett, L. (1996). Wealthier is healthier. J Human Resources, 31(4), 841-868. https://doi.org/10.2307/146149
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). (1990). Strategy for Improved Nutrition of Children and Women in Developing Countries. New York: UNICEF.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).