Land Science https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ls <p><span lang="EN-US"><em>Land Science &nbsp;</em>(ISSN 2690-5418 e-ISSN 2690-4802)&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal, published by the IDEAS SPREAD in United States. Land Science&nbsp;is quarterly, published in March, June, September and December. It publishes original research, applied, and educational articles in land use/land change, land management, land system science and landscape, etc.</span></p> <p>Our aim is to encourage scientists to publish their experimental and theoretical research in as much detail as possible. Full experimental and/or methodical details must be provided for research articles.</p> IDEAS SPREAD INC en-US Land Science 2690-5418 <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.<br>This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).</p> Law Enforcement Agencies in Disaster Response in Nepal: Analyzing the Competency of the Nepal Police and the Armed Police Force https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ls/article/view/786 <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">Although Nepal Police and Armed Police Force are the key responding tools of disaster response in Nepal, their response competency does not suffice the need for effective response. Applying quantitative research methodology, this research has in-depth investigated the fundamental and technical knowledge, and preparedness activities of such police personnel. Ultimately it was discovered that their knowledge and preparedness are not adequate to meet the need. On the other hand, the practice of the usage of disaster untrained police personnel in response operations is prevalent in the country. And this tendency is not only risking the life of the disaster victims but also putting the responders’ lives at stake. Amidst such bleakness, during the investigation, the perception of the police personnel on their engagement in disaster response was found highly aspiring. Indeed this tendency will work as the force multiplier if their capacity is enhanced properly. The study has further investigated that the lethargic national investment in the disaster response capacity building process is the fundamental problem in terms of the competency building process. Heavy reliance on foreign aids and national and international non-government agencies has not only increased the dependency on capacity building process but also mired the national mechanism turning responsible authorities and institutions lethargic.</span></p> Malla S. B. Dahal R. K. Hasegawa S. ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-10 2021-01-10 3 1 p1 p1 10.30560/ls.v3n1p1 Child Stunting and Land Degradation under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): Evidence from 23 Developing Countries https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ls/article/view/794 <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">Child stunting and land degradation have received an increasing attention from scholars and practitioners. Both of them are also measured by indicators under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, the research on the relationship between child stunting and land degradation is insufficient, especially with the perspective of SDGs. This article uses empirical data of 23 developing countries to explore the relationship between child stunting and land degradation, with the controlling of GDP per capita of the selected countries. Path analysis is added into the traditional OLS method. The results show that land degradation has little impact on child stunting in the selected developing countries, but socioeconomic status affect child stunting significantly. A number of explanations and implications are generated. In particular, several developing countries’ strong reliance on food importation may be a reason of why land degradation does not affect child stunting. The interactions between different SDGs are also noted.</span></p> Suyu Liu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-01-19 2021-01-19 3 1 p15 p15 10.30560/ls.v3n1p15 System Modeling of the Smart City in Context of Land Management E-Service https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ls/article/view/820 <p>The smart city is a prominent field of research, which is at the intersection of broader fields of economics, social, and land sciences. Four core smart city research subfields were identified, specifically defined, and classified – urbanization, city planning, and governance, land and resources management. In this paper author presented a classification of modern smart city research tools and introduced smart city, conceptual research model. Information system is critical in describing underlying principles of modern urbanization processes and modeling it is processed effectively. This scientific work aims to address the challenges any new researcher in this field encounters, such as lack of extensive overview and classification of available tools. The list of major economic aspects of the smart city system and the main services, that city provides, are introduced and explained within the scope of this article. The author presents a conceptual model of a smart city from both a general scientific viewpoint as well as in the context of information system modeling. Data is a key component of any system modeling process as well as it is an essential part of tool classification. This paper places emphasis on data classification by its application and its research subfield. A great deal of attention is paid towards system modeling of land management subsystems in the context of smart city digital service. This article can serve as a theoretical foundation for further research and practical implementation of future smart systems.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Volodymyr Nazarenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-27 2021-04-27 3 1 p22 p22 10.30560/ls.v3n1p22