https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ls/issue/feed Land Science 2020-10-24T03:22:58+08:00 Lucas Williams ls@ideasspread.org Open Journal Systems <p>Land Science&nbsp; (ISSN 2690-5418 e-ISSN 2690-4802)&nbsp;is an international and crossdisciplinary open access journal of land use/land change, land management, land system science and landscape, etc, published by&nbsp;IDEAS SPREAD in United States. Our aim is to encourage scientists to publish their experimental and theoretical research in as much detail as possible. Full experimental and/or methodical details must be provided for research articles.</p> https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ls/article/view/685 Heat Processing and Change of Proper Indicators of Basalts 2020-10-24T03:22:58+08:00 Rashidova R K bo_bosh@mail.ru Kurbanov Abdirakhim Ahmedovich bo_bosh@mail.ru Aliyev T bo_bosh@mail.ru Jiyanov A B bo_bosh@mail.ru Turdieva O J bo_bosh@mail.ru Nurmatov J T bo_bosh@mail.ru <p>This paper presents the results of the analysis of the quality of basalts, their heat treatment and studies of changes in the chemical composition of basalts, which leads to a change in the external color of partially processed basalt raw materials (hereinafter referred to as semi-finished product). The results of a study of purified basalt from slime, impurities and hydroxides, changes in the chemical composition of basalt rock are presented.</p> <p>The prospects of heat treatment of a semi-finished product and obtaining multi-colored products from mineral raw materials is shown. It was found that the optimal firing temperature of the semi-finished product, the possible options for changing the external color and the criterion points of the thermal effect at which the basalt semi-finished product changes the external shade.</p> <p>These statements are of great scientific and practical interest in the fact that during the heat treatment of a semifinished product, basalt easily overheats and gradually acquires a different color, which occurs to a liquids temperature and allows the future to plan to obtain high-quality multi-colored products from basalts, for example, products for design.</p> 2020-09-02T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://j.ideasspread.org/index.php/ls/article/view/715 Food Security and Socio-Economic Uplift of Camel Herders in Southern Punjab, Pakistan 2020-10-24T03:22:58+08:00 Asim Faraz drasimfaraz@bzu.edu.pk <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">This study belongs to project “Rural development by livestock extension education in Southern Punjab”. A survey was conducted in Multan and Muzaffargarh districts of Southern Punjab by using a pretested questionnaire to collect the information regarding food security and socio-economic status of cameleers in study area. It has been shown from the results that the socio-economic status of camel herders has improved a lot in last decade mainly due to the knowledge about camel and its products. Definitely camel plays an indispensable role in the food security of people of arid zone. Now the people are getting conscious about consuming the camel milk and products as in earlier time there was a taboo to use the camel products and the people did not get their taste developed. Due to increasing health reasons and by the initiatives taken by government departments the people are getting familiar with the camel products. Now the camel has shifted its place from “ship of the desert” and “beast of the burden” to a “food security animal” with great potential to produce a valuable product even in those areas of harsh climatic conditions where there seems difficult for the other domestic animals to produce. The camel herders value the ethno-veterinary practices and still use these for the treatment in camels. Mainly the camel browse on the roadsides but also stallfed with fodder by cut and carry system. The camel plays a pivotal role in the life sustainability of cameleers where they mainly depend on this specie for their livelihood. Hence; this is an integral part of pastoral ecosystem in arid, semi-arid and deserted lands.</span></p> 2020-10-13T00:00:00+08:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##