Journal of Economics and Management Sciences <p>Journal of Economics and Management Sciences (JEMS) is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal published by IDEAS SPREAD INC. The journal is published in both print and online versions. The online version is free access and download.<br>The journal focuses on the following topics: Corporate Ggovernance, Human Resource Management, Strategic Management, Entrepreneurship, Marketing, E-business, Services, Information Technology Management, Production &amp; Operations Management, Financial Management, Decision Analysis, Management Research Methods and Managerial Economics, etc.</p> IDEAS SPREAD INC en-US Journal of Economics and Management Sciences 2576-3008 <p>Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal.<br>This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (</p> Occupational Fraud in Micro-Financial Institutions in Cameroon: Strategies for Timely Detection and Control <p>Occupational fraud has persistently become a hurtful problem in micro-financial institutions (MFIs) in Cameroon lately. Staff and management of some MFIs are suspended, terminated, or litigated after they are suspected of involvement in occupational fraud over the years. Such delayed detections have caused huge losses to the organisations. In this respect, a study was carried out to examine strategies for timely detection and control of occupational fraud in MFIs in Cameroon. An online survey was opened to experienced certified fraud examiners and auditors to give their experiences of strategies for timely occupational fraud detection and control in micro-financial institutions in Cameroon. The data generated was analysed, regressed, and interpreted to produce empirical results that MFIs in Cameroon apart of installing sound internal control systems, need to adopt and implement monitoring and surprise audits, tips and notifications, rotation of duty and abrogation of paid annual leave in order to secure timely detection and control of occupational fraud before it wreaks heavy losses on the institution. Furthermore, MFIs in Cameroon are cautioned to use information technology control and surveillance strategies with reservation because the facilities that support their operation are poorly developed, yet politicised. MFIs should not hope to discover an occupational fraud through accidents and/or a confessions. They are encouraged to treat their workers fairly but bearing in mind that no matter how well workers are kept comfortable occupational fraud could still be committed by management and staff who suffer from insatiable greed and/or psychosis.</p> Samuel T. MUKAH ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-19 2020-05-19 3 2 p1 p1 10.30560/jems.v3n2p1 Analysis of Educational Quality Based on Quality, ServQual and Retention of Students <p>This study analyzed the influence of ServQual (service quality) on satisfaction and student retention. The sample used was 175 STIESIA Surabaya students using non probability sampling called, accidental sampling. Data analysis used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with AMOS 21 software. Based on the discussion of the hypotheses proposed in this study, the conclusions are as follows: 1). There is a positive influence between ServQual on satisfaction. This is based on the results of the parameter coefficient output. It is known that the relationship of the ServQual construct to satisfaction is significant at 0.001 (sign p = ***) with a standardized parameter coefficient of 0.735. Thus, if ServQual is good, students will be satisfied, and vice versa if ServQual is bad, students will not be satisfied. 2) There is a positive effect of satisfaction on student retention. This is based on the results of the output coefficient parameter construct relationship satisfaction to student retention significant at 0.001 (p = 0.001) and standardized parameter coefficient of 0.513. Thus if student satisfaction is high then student retention is also high, and vice versa if satisfaction is low then student retention is also low. 3) There is no influence between ServQual on student retention indicated by the output parameter coefficient at 0.001 (p = 0.132) This proves that loyalty cannot be created through service quality, but through satisfaction first. thus, it can be said that satisfaction has a mediating effect between ServQual and Student Retention.</p> Tegowati Tegowati Dian Palupi Yesa Cahayaning Ramadhani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-22 2020-05-22 3 2 p11 p11 10.30560/jems.v3n2p11 Influence of Interest Rate on Industrial Output in Nigeria <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">The study examined the effect of interest rate on industrial sector in Nigeria from 1980 to 2018. The data for the study were sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) statistical bulletin and Autoregressive Distributed Lag model was used as the main analytical tool. The ARDL Bounds test revealed the existence of long run relationship among the variables. The result further revealed the existence of a positive relationship between interest rate and industrial output both in the long run and short run. The rate of inflation was negatively related to industrial output but the relationship was not significant in both the short run and the long run. The number of labour force affected the productivity of industry thereby increasing its output in both the short run and the long run. Gross investment has a positive relationship with industrial output but the relationship was not significant. Lastly, foreign direct investment was not significant in affecting industrial output in the short run but it was positive and significant in affecting industrial output in the long run. The study concluded that interest rate has the ability to influence industry output in Nigeria. Therefore, the study recommended among others that the apex monetary institution - the Central Bank of Nigeria should ensure that the rate of interest that will encourage investors to borrow in order to start to do businesses or to expand their businesses. This will increase industry output and in turn support economic growth in Nigeria.</span></p> Chioma Chidinma George-Anokwuru Itoro Bosco ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-02 2020-06-02 3 2 p21 p21 10.30560/jems.v3n2p21 Government Expenditure and Inflation in Nigeria <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">The impact of government spending on Nigeria’s inflation levels between 1999 and 2019 was x-rayed in this paper. The data for the study were sourced from CBN statistical bulletin and Autoregressive Distributed Lag model was used as the main analytical tool. </span></p> <p class="text"><span lang="EN-US">A long-run relationship among this study’s variables was realized, using the ARDL Bounds test. The result also revealed a positive but insignificant relationship between government expenditure and inflation rate in the short-run. Moreover, in the long-run, government expenditure has negative and is statistically significant inflation rate. Money supply has a negative and is statistically insignificant with inflation rate in the short-run. In the long-run, money supply has a positive and significant relationship with inflation rate. Gross domestic product was negatively related to inflation rate in both short-run and long-run. Moreover, exchange rate affected inflation rate negatively and significantly in the short-run and positively and significantly in the long-run. The increasing demands of the population affected inflation rate positively and significantly in both short-run and long-run. Investment was positively related to inflation rate but not significant in the short-run but the relationship was negative and significant in the long-run. The study therefore recommended among others that government should exercise discretion in spending in order to check inflation rate. This can be done by channeling spending on productive activities that will cushion the effect of inflation rate rather than exacerbate it.</span></p> Chioma Chidinma George-Anokwuru Bosco Itoro Ekpenyong ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-03 2020-06-03 3 2 p29 p29 10.30560/jems.v3n2p29 Econometric Analysis of Export Led Growth in the Nigerian Economy <p class="text"><em><span lang="EN-US" style="color: black; background: white; font-style: normal;">This study investigates the role of export in the economic growth process of Nigeria with using the three sample periods of annual time series data, which are 1961 to 2013, 1970 to 2013 and 1981 to 2013 respectively. The variables for this period of 1961 to 2013 are GDP growth and exports/GDP ratio, the variables for this period of 1970 to 2013 are GDP growth, exports/GDP ratio, Imports/GDP ratio and the real interest rate and the variables for the last period of data are total exports, manufacturing GDP, agricultural GDP, manufacturing exports and agricultural exports respectively. The VAR Granger causality results for the first sample period show no causal relationship between exports and the GDP growth which illustrates that the two variables are independent of each other. The VAR results for the period of 1970 to 2013 show no causality between the variables under consideration. Following the results of the Granger causality test for this last period of 1981 to 2013, the results show no evidence of causality existing among the variables, which do not show evidence for the support for the export-led growth in the Nigerian economy. This study concluded that exports do not influence and cannot sustain economic growth in the Nigerian economy. The study recommended that an attempt should be made towards executing an economic policy that will strengthen the economic growth of Nigeria.</span></em></p> Ojo Johnson Adelakun Olatunde Kazeem Olayiwola ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-05 2020-06-05 3 2 p38 p38 10.30560/jems.v3n2p38 Effect of the Socioeconomic Characteristics of Borrowers on Microcredit Repayment Behaviour: An Application to a Category II Microfinance Institution in Cameroon <p>The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of socioeconomic characteristics of borrowers on microcredit repayment behaviour. The results of Probit regression statistical analysis using a database of 1805 individual loan contracts, credit records and follow-up files from 2007 to 2014 period by Community Credit of Africa (CCA) in Cameroon, reveal that educational level, awareness about the location of business and/or home of borrowers by the lender, sector of activities, availability of collateral, income stability, and personal wealth of borrowers have a statistically significant influence on microcredit repayment behaviour of borrowers. The outcome of the results shows that microfinance institutions should not only rely on financial indicators to assess the creditworthiness of borrowers. Other factors belonging to the social and economic characteristics of the borrowers are supposed to be integrated in credit risk models. These factors are sought to influence significantly microcredit repayment behaviour of borrowers.</p> Ntieche Adamou Forbeneh Agha Jude Mbondo Georges Dieudonné Bilguissou Abba ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 3 2 p47 p47 10.30560/jems.v3n2p47 Instrument for Testing Innovation on the Sustainable Growth of Manufacturing SMEs in Nigeria <p>This paper is based on a pilot study which was conducted to test innovation on the sustainable growth of SMEs by focusing on the methodological viewpoints. The objective of the pilot study was to assess the viability, length of time, cost, and adverse effects of innovation on the sustainable growth of SMEs in Nigeria so as to enhance the design of the questionnaire before its full implementation. A review of the research instrument was performed by four multi-disciplinary academics who specialised in management, accounting, and strategic management, respectively. The aim was to ensure consistency in the questionnaire so that respondents would have no trouble completing them. The statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) Version 23 was used to assist in the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) which tests for reliability and the Cronbach alpha values were used to examine the content and face validity of the instrument. All the constructs and items used in the model were adapted from previous literature. The sample size used for the study comprised 100 respondents recruited from the SMEs operating in Nigeria. The findings showed that all the constructs in the model carried a high Cronbach alpha value of above 0.7. Therefore, all items used in the instrument were retained. This study is expected to contribute to the literature on methodological multivariate studies, the quantitative approach research on innovation, and the sustainable growth of SMEs.</p> Danjuma T. Nimfa Ahmad S. A. Latiff Sazali A. Wahab ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-16 2020-06-16 3 2 p57 p57 10.30560/jems.v3n2p57 Funding Challenges of Small and Medium Enterprises in Transition Countries: Kosovo Case Study <p>SMEs play a very important role in the development of economies of different countries and they are now considered as a key factor of economic development. They affect unemployment, promote social welfare and can be treated as a promoter of economic growth. The paper addresses the role and importance of financing SMEs in transition countries including Kosovo. The study examines the key factors affecting the increase of SME financing from external sources, namely bank lending since other external sources of financing in Kosovo are scarce and almost non-existent. For the purposes of this paper, data from 215 SMEs surveyed in Kosovo were used, randomly distributed across manufacturing, services and commerce sectors. Data collection was done in the period January-April 2016, and their processing was carried out with SPSS (Social Package for Social Science). In order to have more consistent information during data processing, certain models were used in the paper: Paried-Samples T Test, which was used to investigate the difference between two sets of averages, which indicates that the business plan for the enterprise is relevant to bank loan access. The One Way Anova model was used to test the differences between two or more averages, and through this model is proved that high-profit enterprises have achieved easier access to bank loans. Also following the One Way Anova and Post Hoc LSD test, there were found differences between groups of enterprise by their types, activity and age. The research shows that enterprises with older ages have been able to obtain more easily bank loans. The One Way Anova and Welch-Brown-Forthyse test was used to deal with the level of education of business owners, whereby it was found that owners with a high level of education had easier access to bank loans. Through the Indepedent Samples T Test technique it was found that there is a significant difference between the age groups of the owners based on the mean and standard deviation.</p> Fahredin Berisha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-20 2020-06-20 3 2 p71 p71 10.30560/jems.v3n2p71